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      Furosemide for Accelerated Recovery of Blood Pressure Postpartum in Women with a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy : A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          Abstract

          Persistent postpartum hypertension is a significant cause of maternal morbidity. Our objective was to study the effect of furosemide on postpartum blood pressure recovery in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a 5-day course of 20 mg oral furosemide versus placebo in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia with/without severe features from June 2018 to October 2019. Primary outcomes were persistent hypertension at 7 days postpartum (using generalized linear models to calculate adjusted relative risk) and days to resolution of hypertension (Kaplan-Meier curves), stratified by severe/nonsevere hypertensive disease. Secondary outcomes included readmissions and need for additional hypertensive medication.We randomized 384 women (192 per group). Baseline characteristics were similar except cesarean delivery rate was higher in the furosemide group (29% versus 20%; P =0.04). In women randomized to furosemide, there was a 60% reduction in the prevalence of persistently elevated blood pressure at 7 days when controlling for cesarean (adjusted relative risk, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20–0.81]). The magnitude of reduction was greater in women with nonsevere disease (adjusted relative risk, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.10–0.67]). Number of days to blood pressure resolution was significantly shorter among women with nonsevere disease randomized to furosemide (8.5 versus 10.5; P =0.001). There were no significant differences in readmissions or need for additional antihypertensive medication postpartum between groups. In this double-blinded randomized trial, a short course of postpartum furosemide significantly improved blood pressure control in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mostly among women without severe disease.

          Registration:

          URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique identifier: NCT035556761.

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          Most cited references15

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          WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review.

          The reduction of maternal deaths is a key international development goal. Evidence-based health policies and programmes aiming to reduce maternal deaths need reliable and valid information. We undertook a systematic review to determine the distribution of causes of maternal deaths. We selected datasets using prespecified criteria, and recorded dataset characteristics, methodological features, and causes of maternal deaths. All analyses were restricted to datasets representative of populations. We analysed joint causes of maternal deaths from datasets reporting at least four major causes (haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, abortion, obstructed labour, ectopic pregnancy, embolism). We examined datasets reporting individual causes of death to investigate the heterogeneity due to methodological features and geographical region and the contribution of haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, abortion, and sepsis as causes of maternal death at the country level. 34 datasets (35,197 maternal deaths) were included in the primary analysis. We recorded wide regional variation in the causes of maternal deaths. Haemorrhage was the leading cause of death in Africa (point estimate 33.9%, range 13.3-43.6; eight datasets, 4508 deaths) and in Asia (30.8%, 5.9-48.5; 11,16 089). In Latin America and the Caribbean, hypertensive disorders were responsible for the most deaths (25.7%, 7.9-52.4; ten, 11,777). Abortion deaths were the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean (12%), which can be as high as 30% of all deaths in some countries in this region. Deaths due to sepsis were higher in Africa (odds ratio 2.71), Asia (1.91), and Latin America and the Caribbean (2.06) than in developed countries. Haemorrhage and hypertensive disorders are major contributors to maternal deaths in developing countries. These data should inform evidence-based reproductive health-care policies and programmes at regional and national levels. Capacity-strengthening efforts to improve the quality of burden-of-disease studies will further validate future estimates.
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            Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia : ACOG Practice Bulletin Summary, Number 222

            (2020)
            Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy constitute one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. It has been estimated that preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of pregnancies globally (). In Latin America and the Caribbean, hypertensive disorders are responsible for almost 26% of maternal deaths, whereas in Africa and Asia they contribute to 9% of deaths. Although maternal mortality is much lower in high-income countries than in developing countries, 16% of maternal deaths can be attributed to hypertensive disorders (). In the United States, the rate of preeclampsia increased by 25% between 1987 and 2004 (). Moreover, in comparison with women giving birth in 1980, those giving birth in 2003 were at 6.7-fold increased risk of severe preeclampsia (). This complication is costly: one study reported that in 2012 in the United States, the estimated cost of preeclampsia within the first 12 months of delivery was $2.18 billion ($1.03 billion for women and $1.15 billion for infants), which was disproportionately borne by premature births (). This Practice Bulletin will provide guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.
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              Etiology and management of postpartum hypertension-preeclampsia.

              Baha Sibai (2012)
              Postpartum hypertension can be related to persistence of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or preexisting chronic hypertension, or it could develop de novo postpartum secondary to other causes. There are limited data describing the etiology, differential diagnosis, and management of postpartum hypertension-preeclampsia. The differential diagnosis is extensive, and varies from benign (mild gestational or essential hypertension) to life-threatening such as severe preeclampsia-eclampsia, pheochromocytoma, and cerebrovascular accidents. Therefore, medical providers caring for postpartum women should be educated about continued monitoring of signs and symptoms and prompt management of these women in a timely fashion. Evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and may require a multidisciplinary approach that considers predelivery risk factors, time of onset, associated signs/symptoms, and results of selective laboratory and imaging findings. The objective of this review is to increase awareness and to provide a stepwise approach toward the diagnosis and management of women with persistent and/or new-onset hypertension-preeclampsia postpartum period. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Hypertension
                Hypertension
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0194-911X
                1524-4563
                May 2021
                May 2021
                : 77
                : 5
                : 1517-1524
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Maternal and Child Health Research Center, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (J.L.P., A.H., S.K.S., M.A.E., L.D.L.), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia.
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (J.L.), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia.
                [3 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Research on Reproduction and Women’s Health (N.K.), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia.
                Article
                10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16133
                33550824
                601940c1-304d-4241-a90e-af4b13d04bda
                © 2021
                History

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