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      Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Subergorgia


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          The genus Subergorgia (coelenterata, Gorgonacea, Subergorgiidae) is distributed in the Indo-pacific region. Previous investigations on the various species of the genus have revealed the presence of a number of new compounds including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and steroids. Certain biological activities particularly cytotoxic activity have been observed for the isolated constituents and compositions derived from the coral. This review covers the secondary metabolites reported from the genus Subergorgia and their biological properties.

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          The inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation by marine natural products.

          The deregulated activation of NF-kappaB is associated with cancer development and inflammatory diseases. With an aim to find new NF-kappaB inhibitors, we purified and characterized compounds from extracts of the Fijian sponge Rhabdastrella globostellata, the crinoid Comanthus parvicirrus, the soft corals Sarcophyton sp. nov. and Sinularia sp., and the gorgonian Subergorgia sp. after an initial screening of 266 extracts from different marine origins. Results obtained show that selected purified compounds had a cytotoxic effect on the human leukaemia cell line K562, inhibited both TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB-DNA binding as well as TNF-alpha-induced IkappaBalpha degradation and nuclear translocation of p50/p65. Furthermore, we observed the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation induced by an overexpression of IKKbeta. Interestingly, natural products inhibited IKKbeta kinase as well as the 26S proteasome proteolytic activity.
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            Antifouling and antibacterial compounds from the gorgonians Subergorgia suberosa and Scripearia gracillis.

            In this study, we investigated the potential antilarval and antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites of the gorgonians Subergorgia suberosa and Scripearia gracillis from the South China Sea. Fresh specimens of these two gorgonian corals were collected from a shallow reef in Sanya Bay of Hainan Island and extracted with different solvents. Antilarval activity of the chemical extracts and pure compounds was evaluated in settlement inhibition assays with laboratory-reared Balanus amphitrite and Bugula neritina larvae, while antibacterial activity was assessed with disc diffusion bioassay on growth inhibition of 15 marine bacterial species. Using bioassay-guided procedures, we purified and identified nine compounds. The most potent metabolites produced by these gorgonian corals were subergorgic acid and pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione extracted from S. suberosa. Our results show that the gorgonian coral S. suberosa and S. gracillis can produce potent anti-fouling compounds that deserve further exploration.
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              Two new subergane-based sesquiterpenes from a Taiwanese Gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa.

              Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the Taiwanese Gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa has resulted in the isolation of two new subergane-based sesquiterpenes, subergorgiol (1) and 2beta-acetoxysubergorgic acid (2), along with four known compounds, subergorgic acid methyl ester (3), 2beta-acetoxy methyl ester of subergorgic acid (4), 2beta-hydroxysubergorgic acid (5), and subergorgic acid (6). The structures of the new metabolites 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of extensive spectral analyses. Subergorgiol (1) may be the biosynthetic precursor of 2-6. Compound 3 was found to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity against the growth of HeLa cancer cells.

                Author and article information

                Pharmacogn Rev
                Pharmacogn Rev
                Pharmacognosy Reviews
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jan-Jun 2012
                : 6
                : 11
                : 74-80
                [1] School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Mr. Faheem Amir, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia E-mail: faheem.a42@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © Pharmacognosy Reviews

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 09 June 2011
                : 29 July 2011
                : 08 May 2012
                Review Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                subergorgia,alkaloids,steroids,cytotoxic activity,terpenes
                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                subergorgia, alkaloids, steroids, cytotoxic activity, terpenes


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