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      VALORACIÓN DEL ORIGEN AFRICANIZADO EN LA INTEGRACIÓN DE UNA POBLACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE Apis mellifera L. Translated title: ASSESSMENT OF THE AFRICANIZED ORIGIN IN THE INTEGRATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL POPULATION OF Apis mellifera L.

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN La abeja africana (Apis mellifera scutellata) se introdujo del sur de África a Brasil en 1956 para inducir recombinaciones genéticas y generar segregantes adaptados a zonas tropicales; sin embargo, 26 colonias escaparon y con ello se inició un proceso de africanización en el continente americano. Se integró un apiario experimental mediante la recombinación de germoplasma europeo y africanizado con propósitos de mejoramiento genético, el cual se ha mantenido sin aplicación de acaricidas contra varroasis por más de 20 años. La población se generó mediante cruzamientos controlados de abejas europeas (Apis mellifera ligustica) que habían estado bajo mejoramiento genético por alrededor de 15 años (fuente de zánganos) con abejas africanizadas (A. m. scutellata con probable recombinación con diversas subespecies de abejas europeas) que habían estado sujetas a un proceso de selección para su semidomesticación y mejoramiento genético bajo criterios apícolas (fuente de abejas reinas). Con el objeto de tener información sobre el origen materno de la población, se realizó secuenciación de las regiones intergénicas COI-COII y ND5 del ADNmt en una muestra aleatoria de 19 colmenas. Se confirmó el origen materno africano de A. m. scutellata (74 %) y se reveló la presencia de colmenas de origen híbrido de A. m. scutellata × A. m. capensis (26 %), no reportado en México hasta antes de esta investigación. Los resultados parece indicar que las abejas africanizadas han conservado su ADN mitocondrial a través del proceso de dispersión.

          Translated abstract

          SUMMARY The African bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) was introduced from South Africa to Brazil in 1956 to induce genetic recombinations and generate segregants adapted to tropical areas; however, 26 colonies escaped and a process of Africanization started in the American continent. An experimental apiary was integrated by recombination of European and Africanized germplasm for breeding purposes, which has been maintained without application of acaricide against varroasis for more than 20 years. The population was generated by controlled mating of European bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) that had been under genetic improvement for about 15 years (source of drones) with Africanized bees (A. m. scutellata with probable genetic recombination with other European subspecies) that had been under to a selection process for its semi-domestication and genetic improvement under apicultural criteria (source of queen bees). In order to obtain information on the maternal origin of the population, the intergenic regions COI-COII and ND5 of the mtDNA were sequenced in a random sample of 19 hives. The maternal African origin of A. m. scutellata (74%) was confirmed and the presence of hives of hybrid origin of A. m. scutellata × A. m. capensis (26%), not reported in Mexico before this investigation, was revealed. This seems to indicate that Africanized bees have conserved their mitochondrial DNA through the dispersion process.

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          Most cited references 36

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          For aligning DNA sequences that differ only by sequencing errors, or by equivalent errors from other sources, a greedy algorithm can be much faster than traditional dynamic programming approaches and yet produce an alignment that is guaranteed to be theoretically optimal. We introduce a new greedy alignment algorithm with particularly good performance and show that it computes the same alignment as does a certain dynamic programming algorithm, while executing over 10 times faster on appropriate data. An implementation of this algorithm is currently used in a program that assembles the UniGene database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
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              Relative effect of four characteristics that restrain the population growth of the mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rfm
                Revista fitotecnia mexicana
                Rev. fitotec. mex
                Sociedad Mexicana de Fitogenética A.C. (Chapingo, Estado de México, Mexico )
                0187-7380
                June 2019
                : 42
                : 2
                : 111-118
                Affiliations
                Tecamachalco orgnameBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia Mexico
                Montecillo orgnameColegio de Postgraduados Mexico
                Montecillo orgnameColegio de Postgraduados Mexico
                Article
                S0187-73802019000200111
                602c1237-e48d-4644-9932-2dc050cbd181

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 8
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