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      11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 deficiency alters the gut microbiome response to Western diet


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          The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched ‘Western’ diet. 11β-HSD1 deficiency significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiome, and did so in a diet-specific manner. On a Western diet, 11β-HSD1 deficiency increased the relative abundance of the family Bacteroidaceae, and on a chow diet, it altered relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae. Our results demonstrate that (i) genetic effects on host–microbiome interactions can depend upon diet and (ii) that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome may contribute to the aspects of the metabolic and/or inflammatory phenotype observed with 11β-HSD1 deficiency.

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          High Fat Diet-Induced Gut Microbiota Exacerbates Inflammation and Obesity in Mice via the TLR4 Signaling Pathway

          Background & Aims While it is widely accepted that obesity is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, the molecular origin of the inflammation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of endotoxin-induced inflammation via TLR4 signaling pathway at both systemic and intestinal levels in response to a high-fat diet. Methods C57BL/6J and TLR4-deficient C57BL/10ScNJ mice were maintained on a low-fat (10 kcal % fat) diet (LFD) or a high–fat (60 kcal % fat) diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Results HFD induced macrophage infiltration and inflammation in the adipose tissue, as well as an increase in the circulating proinflammatory cytokines. HFD increased both plasma and fecal endotoxin levels and resulted in dysregulation of the gut microbiota by increasing the Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes ratio. HFD induced the growth of Enterobecteriaceae and the production of endotoxin in vitro. Furthermore, HFD induced colonic inflammation, including the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the induction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), iNOS, COX-2, and the activation of NF-κB in the colon. HFD reduced the expression of tight junction-associated proteins claudin-1 and occludin in the colon. HFD mice demonstrated higher levels of Akt and FOXO3 phosphorylation in the colon compared to the LFD mice. While the body weight of HFD-fed mice was significantly increased in both TLR4-deficient and wild type mice, the epididymal fat weight and plasma endotoxin level of HFD-fed TLR4-deficient mice were 69% and 18% of HFD-fed wild type mice, respectively. Furthermore, HFD did not increase the proinflammatory cytokine levels in TLR4-deficient mice. Conclusions HFD induces inflammation by increasing endotoxin levels in the intestinal lumen as well as in the plasma by altering the gut microbiota composition and increasing its intestinal permeability through the induction of TLR4, thereby accelerating obesity.
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            A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance

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              Novel adipose tissue-mediated resistance to diet-induced visceral obesity in 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-deficient mice.

              The metabolic syndrome (visceral obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia) resembles Cushing's Syndrome, but without elevated circulating glucocorticoid levels. An emerging concept suggests that the aberrantly elevated levels of the intracellular glucocorticoid reamplifying enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD-1) found in adipose tissue of obese humans and rodents underlies the phenotypic similarities between idiopathic and "Cushingoid" obesity. Transgenic overexpression of 11 beta-HSD-1 in adipose tissue reproduces a metabolic syndrome in mice, whereas 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency or inhibition has beneficial metabolic effects, at least on liver metabolism. Here we report novel protective effects of 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency on adipose function, distribution, and gene expression in vivo in 11 beta-HSD-1 nullizygous (11 beta-HSD-1(-/-)) mice. 11 beta-HSD-1(-/-) mice expressed lower resistin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and uncoupling protein-2 mRNA levels in adipose, indicating insulin sensitization. Isolated 11 beta-HSD-1(-/-) adipocytes exhibited higher basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. 11 beta-HSD-1(-/-) mice also exhibited reduced visceral fat accumulation upon high-fat feeding. High-fat-fed 11 beta-HSD-1(-/-) mice rederived onto the C57BL/6J strain resisted diabetes and weight gain despite consuming more calories. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that adipose 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency beneficially alters adipose tissue distribution and function, complementing the reported effects of hepatic 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency or inhibition.

                Author and article information

                J Endocrinol
                J. Endocrinol
                The Journal of Endocrinology
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                December 2016
                16 December 2016
                : 232
                : 2
                : 273-283
                [1 ]Computational Genomics Analysis and Training Medical Research Council-Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                [2 ]University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
                [3 ]Edinburgh Genomics Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to K E Chapman; Email: karen.chapman@ 123456ed.ac.uk

                (A Heger and K E Chapman contributed equally to this work)

                © 2017 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

                : 16 November 2016
                : 24 November 2016
                Editor's Choice

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                glucocorticoids,11β-hsd,diet,gut microbiome
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                glucocorticoids, 11β-hsd, diet, gut microbiome


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