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      Heteroatom-doped carbon dots: synthesis, characterization, properties, photoluminescence mechanism and biological applications

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          This review summarized the recent progress in the synthesis, characterization, properties, photoluminescence mechanism and biological applications of carbon dots.


          Heteroatom-doped carbon dots (CDs), due to their excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties, attracted widespread attention recently and demonstrated immense promise for diverse applications, particularly for biological applications. The objective of this feature article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent progress in the research and development of heteroatom-doped CDs and a detailed description of the influence of single or co-doping heteroatoms on their PL behavior. The most recent understanding and critical insights into the PL mechanism of heteroatom-doped CDs are also highlighted. Moreover, potential bio-related applications of heteroatom-doped CDs in biosensing, bioimaging, and theranostics are also reviewed. This state-of-the-art review will provide a platform for understanding the intricate details of heteroatom-doped CDs, a summary of the latest progress in the field, and related applications in biology and is expected to inspire further developments in this exciting class of materials.

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          Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioimaging Application

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            Upconversion and downconversion fluorescent graphene quantum dots: ultrasonic preparation and photocatalysis.

            A facile ultrasonic route for the fabrication of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with upconverted emission is presented. The as-prepared GQDs exhibit an excitation-independent downconversion and upconversion photoluminescent (PL) behavior, and the complex photocatalysts (rutile TiO(2)/GQD and anatase TiO(2)/GQD systems) were designed to harness the visible spectrum of sunlight. It is interesting that the photocatalytic rate of the rutile TiO(2)/GQD complex system is ca. 9 times larger than that of the anatase TiO(2)/GQD complex under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation in the degradation of methylene blue.
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              Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis

              Carbon nanodots (CDs) with a low cytotoxicity have been synthesized by one-step microwave-assisted pyrolysis of citric acid in the presence of various amine molecules. The primary amine molecules have been confirmed to serve dual roles as N-doping precursors and surface passivation agents, both of which considerably enhanced the fluorescence of the CDs.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Materials Chemistry B
                J. Mater. Chem. B
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                : 4
                : 45
                : 7204-7219
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing
                [2 ]China University of Petroleum (Beijing)
                [3 ]Beijing
                [4 ]China
                [5 ]National Engineering Research Centre of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing
                [6 ]The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education
                [7 ]South China University of Technology
                [8 ]Guangzhou
                [9 ]Personalized Drug Therapy Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province
                [10 ]Hospital of the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital
                [11 ]Chengdu
                [12 ]Department of Civll and Environmental Engineering
                [13 ]Rice University
                [14 ]Houston
                [15 ]USA
                [16 ]School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
                [17 ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening
                [18 ]Southern Medical University
                [19 ]State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials For Architectures
                [20 ]Wuhan University of Technology
                [21 ]Wuhan
                © 2016
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C6TB02131J


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