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      Acute Hemodynamic Improvement by Thermal Vasodilation inside the Abdominal and Iliac Arterial Segments of Young Sedentary Individuals

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          Objective: To study the hemodynamic response to lower leg heating intervention (LLHI) inside the abdominal and iliac arterial segments (AIAS) of young sedentary individuals. Methods: A Doppler measurement of blood flow was conducted for 5 young sedentary adults with LLHI. Heating durations of 0, 20, and 40 min were considered. A lumped parameter model (LPM) was used to ascertain the hemodynamic mechanism. The hemodynamics were determined via numerical approaches. Results: Ultrasonography revealed that the blood flow waveform shifted upwards under LLHI; in particular, the mean flow increased significantly ( p < 0.05) with increasing heating duration. The LPM showed that its mechanism depends on the reduction in afterload resistance, not on the inertia of blood flow and arterial compliance. The time-averaged wall shear stress, time-averaged production rate of nitric oxide, and helicity in the external iliac arteries increased more significantly than in other segments as the heating duration increased, while the oscillation shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in the AIAS declined with increasing heating duration. There was a more obvious helicity response in the bilateral external iliac arteries than the OSI and RRT responses. Conclusion: LLHI can effectively induce a positive hemodynamic environment in the AIAS of young sedentary individuals.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Fluid shear stress and the vascular endothelium: for better and for worse.

          As blood flows, the vascular wall is constantly subjected to physical forces, which regulate important physiological blood vessel responses, as well as being implicated in the development of arterial wall pathologies. Changes in blood flow, thus generating altered hemodynamic forces are responsible for acute vessel tone regulation, the development of blood vessel structure during embryogenesis and early growth, as well as chronic remodeling and generation of adult blood vessels. The complex interaction of biomechanical forces, and more specifically shear stress, derived by the flow of blood and the vascular endothelium raise many yet to be answered questions:How are mechanical forces transduced by endothelial cells into a biological response, and is there a "shear stress receptor"?Are "mechanical receptors" and the final signaling pathways they evoke similar to other stimulus-response transduction systems?How do vascular endothelial cells differ in their response to physiological or pathological shear stresses?Can shear stress receptors or shear stress responsive genes serve as novel targets for the design of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for cardiovascular pathologies?The current review attempts to bring together recent findings on the in vivo and in vitro responses of the vascular endothelium to shear stress and to address some of the questions raised above.
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            Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis.

             Adel Malek (1999)
            Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in the developed world and nearly the leading cause in the developing world, is associated with systemic risk factors including hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, among others. Nonetheless, atherosclerosis remains a geometrically focal disease, preferentially affecting the outer edges of vessel bifurcations. In these predisposed areas, hemodynamic shear stress, the frictional force acting on the endothelial cell surface as a result of blood flow, is weaker than in protected regions. Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and phenotype. Arterial-level shear stress (>15 dyne/cm2) induces endothelial quiescence and an atheroprotective gene expression profile, while low shear stress (<4 dyne/cm2), which is prevalent at atherosclerosis-prone sites, stimulates an atherogenic phenotype. The functional regulation of the endothelium by local hemodynamic shear stress provides a model for understanding the focal propensity of atherosclerosis in the setting of systemic factors and may help guide future therapeutic strategies.
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              Association between sauna bathing and fatal cardiovascular and all-cause mortality events.

              Sauna bathing is a health habit associated with better hemodynamic function; however, the association of sauna bathing with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality is not known.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                May 2021
                06 April 2021
                : 58
                : 3
                : 191-206
                aLaboratory of Biomechanical Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, College of Architecture & Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
                bDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
                cInterdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, China
                514588 J Vasc Res 2021;58:191–205
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 3, Pages: 15
                Methods in Vascular Biology


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