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      Effects of Dietary Astaxanthin Supplementation on Energy Budget and Bioaccumulation in Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) Crayfish under Microcystin-LR Stress

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      Toxins

      MDPI

      microcystin-LR, Procambarus clarkii, energy budget, astaxanthin

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          Abstract

          This research aimed to study the effects of astaxanthin on energy budget and bioaccumulation of microcystin-leucine-arginine (microcystin-LR) in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852). The crayfish (21.13 ± 4.6 g) were cultured under microcystin-LR stress (0.025 mg/L) and were fed with fodders containing astaxanthin (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/g) for 8 weeks in glass tanks (350 mm × 450 mm × 150 mm). Accumulations of microcystin-LR were measured in different organs of P. clarkii. The results suggested that astaxanthin can significantly improve the survival rate and specific growth rate (SGR) of P. clarkii ( p < 0.05). The dietary astaxanthin supplement seems to block the bioaccumulation of microcystin-LR in the hepatopancreas and ovaries of P. clarkii to some extent ( p < 0.05). Astaxanthin content of 9–12 mg/g in fodder can be a practical and economic choice.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Potential health-promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high-value carotenoid mostly from microalgae.

          The ketocarotenoid astaxanthin can be found in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, and Chlorococcum sp., and the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. The microalga H. pluvialis has the highest capacity to accumulate astaxanthin up to 4-5% of cell dry weight. Astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases, and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and HgCl₂-induced acute renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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            Toxic peptides from freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). I. Isolation, purification and characterization of peptides from Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae

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              Cyanobacterial chemical warfare affects zooplankton community composition

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                04 July 2018
                July 2018
                : 10
                : 7
                Affiliations
                College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China; zhangyingying@ 123456yzu.edu.cn (Y.Z.); lssun@ 123456yzu.edu.cn (L.S.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: anzhenhua@ 123456yzu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-514-8797-2208; Fax: +86-514-8735-0440
                Article
                toxins-10-00277
                10.3390/toxins10070277
                6070782
                29973494
                60519e69-ca14-4370-aa9a-555bb30718f4
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular medicine

                microcystin-lr, procambarus clarkii, energy budget, astaxanthin

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