+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Effects of Helicobacter pylori-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles on Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Liver Fibrosis In Vitro


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Helicobacter pylori is a prevalent pathogenic bacterium that resides in the human stomach. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are known as nanosized cargos released by H. pylori, which have been proposed to have a key role in disease progression, pathogenesis, and modulation of the immune system. There are multiple evidences for the role of H. pylori in extragastroduodenal illnesses especially liver-related disorders. However, the precise mechanism of H. pylori extragastroduodenal pathogenesis still remains unclear. In the current study, we aimed to determine the impact of H. pylori-isolated OMVs on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and expression of liver fibrosis markers.

          Materials and Methods

          Five H. pylori clinical strains with different genotype profiles were used. Helicobacter pylori OMVs were isolated using ultracentrifugation and were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was applied to determine protein components of H. pylori-derived OMVs. Cell viability of LX-2 human hepatic stellate cell line exposed to OMVs was measured by MTT assay. LX-2 cells were treated with OMVs for 24 h. The gene expression of α-SMA, E-cadherin, vimentin, snail, and β-catenin was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression of α-SMA, as a well-studied profibrotic marker, was evaluated with immunocytochemistry.


          Our results showed that H. pylori strains released round shape nanovesicles ranging from 50 to 500 nm. Totally, 112 various proteins were identified in OMVs by proteomic analysis. The isolated OMVs were negative for both CagA and VacA virulence factors. Treatment of HSCs with H. pylori-derived OMVs significantly increased the expression of fibrosis markers.


          In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that H. pylori-derived OMVs could promote HSC activation and induce the expression of hepatic fibrosis markers. Further research is required to elucidate the definite role of H. pylori-derived OMVs in liver fibrosis and liver-associated disorders.

          Related collections

          Most cited references44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The MaxQuant computational platform for mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics.

          MaxQuant is one of the most frequently used platforms for mass-spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data analysis. Since its first release in 2008, it has grown substantially in functionality and can be used in conjunction with more MS platforms. Here we present an updated protocol covering the most important basic computational workflows, including those designed for quantitative label-free proteomics, MS1-level labeling and isobaric labeling techniques. This protocol presents a complete description of the parameters used in MaxQuant, as well as of the configuration options of its integrated search engine, Andromeda. This protocol update describes an adaptation of an existing protocol that substantially modifies the technique. Important concepts of shotgun proteomics and their implementation in MaxQuant are briefly reviewed, including different quantification strategies and the control of false-discovery rates (FDRs), as well as the analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs). The MaxQuant output tables, which contain information about quantification of proteins and PTMs, are explained in detail. Furthermore, we provide a short version of the workflow that is applicable to data sets with simple and standard experimental designs. The MaxQuant algorithms are efficiently parallelized on multiple processors and scale well from desktop computers to servers with many cores. The software is written in C# and is freely available at http://www.maxquant.org.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            NF-κB in the liver--linking injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

            Hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the most common causes of death in patients with chronic liver disease. Chronic liver injury of virtually any etiology triggers inflammatory and wound-healing responses that in the long run promote the development of hepatic fibrosis and HCC. Here, we review the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a master regulator of inflammation and cell death, in the development of hepatocellular injury, liver fibrosis and HCC, with a particular focus on the role of NF-κB in different cellular compartments of the liver. We propose that NF-κB acts as a central link between hepatic injury, fibrosis and HCC, and that it may represent a target for the prevention or treatment of liver fibrosis and HCC. However, NF-κB acts as a two-edged sword and inhibition of NF-κB may not only exert beneficial effects but also negatively impact hepatocyte viability, especially when NF-κB inhibition is pronounced. Finding appropriate targets or identifying drugs that either exert only a moderate effect on NF-κB activity or that can be specifically delivered to nonparenchymal cells will be essential to avoid the increase in liver injury associated with complete NF-κB blockade in hepatocytes.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

              Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                12 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 4848643
                1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                2Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                3Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorder Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                4Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                5Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Canada
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Enoc Mariano Cortés-Malagón

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Shahin Bolori et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 February 2022
                : 5 November 2022
                : 5 March 2023
                Funded by: National Institute for Medical Research Development
                Award ID: 982958
                Research Article


                Comment on this article