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      A Case of Large Sarcoid Choroidal Granuloma Treated with Steroid Pulse Therapy

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To report a case of large sarcoid choroidal granuloma that was successfully treated with steroid pulse therapy. Case Report: A 38-year-old man presented with the primary complaint of decreased visual acuity (VA) in his left eye. Upon examination, a large white protruding lesion of 10 × 8 papilla diameter in size was observed in the macular region, and slightly temporal to it, in the patient’s left eye. Whole-body contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed for differential diagnosis detected numerous enlarged lymph nodes throughout the body, including the bilateral hilar regions. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed by biopsy of the right cervical lymph nodes showing noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma. The fundus lesion was found to be a choroidal granuloma caused by sarcoidosis, and steroid pulse therapy was started. The granuloma was considerably decreased, and the VA in the left eye improved to 0.7 after 2 months. Conclusion: Steroid pulse therapy was found to be effective as an initial treatment for a large sarcoid choroidal granuloma.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Sarcoidosis and its ophthalmic manifestations.

          Of 532 cases of sarcoidosis in the southeastern United States, ocular manifestations were a prominent feature of the disease in 202 (38%) of the patients. Approximately one fifth of them sought medical attention because of ocular complaints. This was the second most frequent clinical manifestation, exceeded only by pulmonary symptoms. When ocular segment structures were affected, the anterior segment was involved in 171 (84.7%) of cases. Chronic granulomatous uveitis was the most common abnormality in 106 cases (52.5%). Posterior segment disease occurred in 51 (25.3%) of cases, usually in the form of chorioretinitis or preiphlebitis; it was sometimes the sole manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis, but usually accompanied abnormalities in the anterior part of the eye. The incidence of central nervous system sarcoidosis was increased when posterior segment involvement was observed. Orbital and adnexal structures, primarily lacrimal gland, were affected in 53 (27.7%) of cases.
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            Choroidal granulomas visualized by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

            To assess the visualization of choroidal granulomas (CG) by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to describe their EDI-OCT characteristics.
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              Choroidal granulomas in systemic sarcoidosis.

              To evaluate the clinical course, including response to therapy, of patients with macular and peripapillary choroidal granulomas secondary to systemic sarcoidosis. This is a retrospective case study and literature review. Nine patients with choroidal granulomas were identified. Eight patients had a tissue biopsy confirming sarcoidosis; one was diagnosed from clinical history and typical gallium scan. Ocular examinations included fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and visual field examination. Eight patients had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans looking for intracranial granulomas. Treatment consisted of oral prednisone in eight patients (one with concomitant subconjunctival triamcinolone); one patient received no treatment because of good vision and granuloma in the nasal retina. Variables studied included visual acuity (VA), response of granulomas to treatment, time to recurrence, and associated anterior segment findings. Eight of nine patients had a solitary lesion whereas one had multifocal involvement. The granulomas ranged in size from one half to four disk diameters. Eight patients had blurry vision; one was asymptomatic. All nine patients had hilar adenopathy and/or pulmonary parenchymal disease. No patient had nonocular neurologic symptoms and in eight patients who underwent MRI examination no intracranial granulomas were detected. Of the eyes that were treated (n = 8) all had decrease in the size of the choroidal mass at an average of 4 months of treatment. Two had complete resolution. Mean follow-up was 29.2 months. At the time of initial diagnosis only one patient had an active anterior uveitis. Five of nine patients had at least one recurrence. Mean time to recurrence was 7.6 months after discontinuing oral prednisone. The VA at presentation ranged from 20/30 to 20/300. Final VA was 20/30 or better in all patients. Choroidal granulomas related to systemic sarcoidosis respond well to oral corticosteroids. They may recur but good vision can be maintained. They are not typically associated with concomitant iritis and also do not appear to be associated with intracranial granulomas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2020
                Januar - April 2020
                11 March 2020
                : 11
                : 1
                : 112-119
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan
                bTakai Eye Clinic, Kawachinagano, Japan
                cTada Eye Clinic, Ikeda, Japan
                dMaruyama Eye Clinic, Takatsuki, Japan
                Author notes
                *Prof. Tsunehiko Ikeda, MD, PhD, Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2–7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan), tikeda@osaka-med.ac.jp
                Article
                506437 PMC7154259 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2020;11:112–119
                10.1159/000506437
                PMC7154259
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Case Report

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