Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Immune reconstitution in HIV-1 infected patients treated for two years with highly active antiretroviral therapy

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      The aim of this paper was to evaluate the immune reconstitution of HIV-1 patients subjected to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for two years or more according to CD45RA and CD45RO cell count; determination of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha serum levels; CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte count; and plasma viral load (VL) determination. For this purpose, a cross sectional study was carried out in the Tropical Diseases Area, Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Between June 2001 and April 2002, 37 HIV-1 infected patients were evaluated, 13 with treatment indication but untreated (G1), 9 subjected to HAART for 5-7 months (G2), and 15 treated for two years or more (G3); both treated groups used medication regularly and without failure. Forty-nine normal individuals were studied as controls (GC-1 and GC-2). There was a tendency (p<0.10) for the predominance of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) associated with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) regimen in G2; and two NRTI associated with a protease inhibitor (PI) in G3. Statistical differences between groups were seen for CD45RA (G1<[G3=GC-2]; p<0.05) and CD45RO (G1<GC-2<G3; p<0.01) cells, and CD4+ T lymphocyte count (G1<G3; G2-intermediate; p<0.05), VL determination (G1>[G2=G3]; p<0.001), TNF-alpha serum determination ([G1>G3; G2=intermediate]>GC-1; p<0.001), IL-2 (G1<[G2=G3=GC-1]; p<0.01), IFN-gamma ([G1=GC-1]<[GC-2=G3]; p<0.001), IL-4 and IL-10 ([G1=G2=G3]>GC-1; p<0.001), serum cytokine profiles, with a higher proportion of subtype 2 in G1 and mature subtype 0 in G2 and G3 (p<0.005). There was no statistical difference for CD8+ T lymphocyte counts (G1=G2=G3; p<0.50). Consistency was seen between positive correlations of profile 1 definer cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma), CD45RA and CD45RO cells, and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and between positive correlations of profile 2 definer cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) with TNF-alpha, and VL. The negative correlations were also consistent as they expressed the inverse of the positives. The variables with the highest number of correlations were IL-2, IFN-gamma, and VL, followed by CD45RA and CD45RO cells, and IL-10. The variables with the lowest number of correlations were CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The results express the partial but important immune reconstitution in HIV-1 infected individuals with the interference of HAART and the importance of cytokines especially IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and CD45RA and CD45RO cells as surrogate markers of this reconstitution.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 32

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Biostatistical Analisis

       J.H. Zar,  JH Zar,  J. H. ZAR (1999)
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Population biology of HIV-1 infection: viral and CD4+ T cell demographics and dynamics in lymphatic tissues.

         Ashley Haase (1998)
        Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is usually transmitted through sexual contact and in the very early stages of infection establishes a persistent infection in lymphatic tissues (LT). Virus is produced and stored at this site in a dynamic process that slowly depletes the immune system of CD4+ T cells, setting the stage for AIDS. In this review, I describe the changes in viral and CD4+ T cell populations in LT over the course of infection and after treatment. I present recent evidence that productively infected CD4+ T cells play an important role in establishing persistent infection from the onset, and that the LT are the major reservoir where virus is produced and stored on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). I discuss the methods used to define the size of viral and CD4+ T cell populations in LT and the nature of virus-host cell interactions in vivo. These experimental approaches have identified populations of latently and chronically infected cells in which virus can elude host defenses, perpetuate infection, and escape eradication by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). I discuss the dramatic impact of HAART on suppressing virus production, reducing the pool of stored virus, and restoring CD4+ T cell populations. I discuss the contributions of thymopoiesis and other renewal mechanisms, lymphatic homeostasis and trafficking to these changes in CD4+ T cell populations in LT, and conclude with a model of immune depletion and repopulation based on the limited regenerative capacity of the adult and the uncompensated losses of productively infected cells that treatment stems. The prediction of this model is that immune regeneration will be slow, variable, and partial. It is nonetheless encouraging to know that even in late stages of infection, control of active replication of HIV-1 provides an opportunity for the immune system to recover from the injuries inflicted by infection.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Demonstration of the Th1 to Th2 cytokine shift during the course of HIV-1 infection using cytoplasmic cytokine detection on single cell level by flow cytometry.

          To characterize changes of Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that occur during the course of HIV infection by cytoplasmic cytokine staining on single cell level. Mitogen-stimulated PBMC from 16 healthy donors, 18 HIV-1-infected individuals without AIDS and 14 patients with AIDS were stained intracellularly with fluorescein-labelled MAb against interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Additionally, co-staining of CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell, natural killer (NK) cell, B-cell and monocytic markers was performed. Fluorescence staining was analysed by three-colour flow-cytometry. A reduced percentage of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (Th1 type)-producing cells among CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals could be demonstrated. There was a continuous decrease of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells in the course of HIV infection and a dramatic reduction of IL-2-expressing cells among CD4+ T cells in patients with AIDS. In contrast to Th1 cytokines, the frequency of Th2 cytokine expressing cells among CD4+ T cells increased in HIV-infected individuals. The maximum frequency of IL-4-expressing cells among CD4+ T cells was seen in HIV-infected individuals without AIDS, whereas the rate of IL-10-producing cells was highest in patients with AIDS. In HIV-infected individuals no significant proportion of Th0 cells expressing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines was detectable. In CD8+ T cells the percentage of IL-2 was expressing cells decreased continuously accompanied by a strong increase of the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing cells. The decreased percentage of cells expressing IL-2 and IFN-gamma in conjunction with an increased proportion of IL-4- and IL-10-producing cells among the CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals demonstrate a Th1 to Th2 cytokine shift in the course of HIV infection on a single cell level. There was no evidence of a Th1 to Th0 cytokine shift. In addition to the loss of CD4+ T cells in HIV infection, the qualitative changes of Th1/Th2 cytokine expression may serve as a marker for progressive failure of cell-mediated immunity.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            [3 ] Botucatu Hemocenter Brazil
            [4 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            jvatitd
            Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
            J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis
            Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP (Botucatu )
            1678-9199
            2006
            : 12
            : 1
            : 91-109
            S1678-91992006000100008
            10.1590/S1678-91992006000100008

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            TOXICOLOGY
            TROPICAL MEDICINE

            Comments

            Comment on this article