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      Diverse Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Phosphorylation in Urine-Derived Tubular Epithelial Cells from Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

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          Backgrounds: The clinical features of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) differ among patients even if they have the same gene mutation in PKD1 or PKD2. This suggests that there is diversity in the expression of other modifier genes or in the underlying molecular mechanisms of ADPKD, but these are not well understood. Methods: We primarily cultured solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3)-positive urine-derived distal tubular epithelial cells from 6 ADPKD patients and 4 healthy volunteers and established immortalized cell lines. The diversity in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) phosphorylation by phospho-RTK array in immortalized tubular epithelial cells was analyzed. Results: We noted diversity in the activation of several molecules, including Met, a receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Administration of golvatinib, a selective Met inhibitor, or transfection of small interfering RNA for Met suppressed cell proliferation and downstream signaling only in the cell lines in which hyperphosphorylation of Met was observed. In three-dimensional culture of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as a cyst formation model of ADPKD, HGF activated Met, resulting in an increased total cyst number and total cyst volume. Administration of golvatinib inhibited these phenotypes in MDCK cells. Conclusion: Analysis of urine-derived tubular epithelial cells demonstrated diverse RTK phosphorylation in ADPKD, and Met phosphorylation was noted in some patients. Considering the difference in the effects of golvatinib on immortalized tubular epithelial cells among patients, this analysis may aid in selecting suitable drugs for individual ADPKD patients.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic disorder. It is associated with large interfamilial and intrafamilial variability, which can be explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of the disorder's underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective treatments.
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            Improved efficiency and pace of generating induced pluripotent stem cells from human adult and fetal fibroblasts.

            It was reported recently that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that resembles that of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. This was achieved by ectopic expression of four genes followed by culture on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeders under a condition favoring hES cell growth. However, the efficiency of generating human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is low, especially for postnatal human fibroblasts. We started supplementing with an additional gene or bioactive molecules to increase the efficiency of generating iPS cells from human adult as well as fetal fibroblasts. We report here that adding SV40 large T antigen (T) to either set of the four reprogramming genes previously used enhanced the efficiency by 23-70-fold from both human adult and fetal fibroblasts. Discernible hES-like colonies also emerged 1-2 weeks earlier if T was added. With the improved efficiency, we succeeded in replacing MEFs with immortalized human feeder cells that we previously established for optimal hES cell growth. We further characterized individually picked hES-like colonies after expansion (up to 24 passages). The majority of them expressed various undifferentiated hES markers. Some but not all the hES-like clones can be induced to differentiate into the derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers in both teratoma formation and embryoid body (EB) formation assays. These pluripotent clones also differentiated into trophoblasts after EB formation or bone morphogenetic protein 4 induction as classic hES cells. Using this improved approach, we also generated hES-like cells from homozygous fibroblasts containing the sickle cell anemia mutation Hemoglobin Sickle. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
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              Inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 activity reduces cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease.

              Abnormal proliferation of cyst-lining epithelium and increased intracystic fluid secretion via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are thought to contribute to cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) expression and activity are increased in certain cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and in Pkd1-mutant renal epithelial cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity with specific inhibitors slows cancer growth. Here we studied the effect of tubacin, a specific HDAC6 inhibitor, on cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Treatment with tubacin prevented cyst formation in MDCK cells, an in vitro model of cystogenesis. Cyclic AMP stimulates cell proliferation and activates intracystic CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in ADPKD. Treatment with tubacin downregulated cyclic AMP levels, inhibited cell proliferation, and inhibited cyclic AMP-activated CFTR chloride currents in MDCK cells. We also found that tubacin reduced cyst growth by inhibiting proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells, downregulated cyclic AMP levels, and improved renal function in a Pkd1-conditional mouse model of ADPKD. Thus, HDAC6 could play a role in cyst formation and could serve as a potential therapeutic target in ADPKD.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2020
                14 August 2020
                : 144
                : 10
                : 525-536
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
                bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
                cDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
                Author notes
                *Tetsuro Kusaba, Department of Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 6028-566 (Japan), kusaba@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp
                509419 Nephron 2020;144:525–536
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 12
                Experimental Nephrology and Genetics: Research Article


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