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      CT Radiation Dose Optimization and Estimation: an Update for Radiologists

      , MD

      Korean Journal of Radiology

      The Korean Society of Radiology

      CT radiation dose, Low dose CT, Radiation dose reduction, MDCT

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          In keeping with the increasing utilization of CT examinations, the greater concern about radiation hazards from examinations has been addressed. In this regard, CT radiation dose optimization has been given a great deal of attention by radiologists, referring physicians, technologists, and physicists. Dose-saving strategies are continuously evolving in terms of imaging techniques as well as dose management. Consequently, regular updates of this issue are necessary especially for radiologists who play a pivotal role in this activity. This review article will provide an update on how we can optimize CT dose in order to maximize the benefit-to-risk ratio of this clinically useful diagnostic imaging method.

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          Most cited references 75

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          Radiologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources--1950-2007.

          The U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation each conducted respective assessments of all radiation sources in the United States and worldwide. The goal of this article is to summarize and combine the results of these two publicly available surveys and to compare the results with historical information. In the United States in 2006, about 377 million diagnostic and interventional radiologic examinations and 18 million nuclear medicine examinations were performed. The United States accounts for about 12% of radiologic procedures and about one-half of nuclear medicine procedures performed worldwide. In the United States, the frequency of diagnostic radiologic examinations has increased almost 10-fold (1950-2006). The U.S. per-capita annual effective dose from medical procedures has increased about sixfold (0.5 mSv [1980] to 3.0 mSv [2006]). Worldwide estimates for 2000-2007 indicate that 3.6 billion medical procedures with ionizing radiation (3.1 billion diagnostic radiologic, 0.5 billion dental, and 37 million nuclear medicine examinations) are performed annually. Worldwide, the average annual per-capita effective dose from medicine (about 0.6 mSv of the total 3.0 mSv received from all sources) has approximately doubled in the past 10-15 years. (c) RSNA, 2009.
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            Strategies for CT radiation dose optimization.

            Recent technologic advances have markedly enhanced the clinical applications of computed tomography (CT). While the benefits of CT exceed the harmful effects of radiation exposure in patients, increasing radiation doses to the population have raised a compelling case for reduction of radiation exposure from CT. Strategies for radiation dose reduction are difficult to devise, however, because of a lack of guidelines regarding CT examination and scanning techniques. Various methods and strategies based on individual patient attributes and CT technology have been explored for dose optimization. It is the purpose of this review article to outline basic principles of CT radiation exposure and emphasize the need for CT radiation dose optimization based on modification of scanning parameters and application of recent technologic innovations. Copyright RSNA, 2004
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              Managing radiation use in medical imaging: a multifaceted challenge.

              This special report aims to inform the medical community about the many challenges involved in managing radiation exposure in a way that maximizes the benefit-risk ratio. The report discusses the state of current knowledge and key questions in regard to sources of medical imaging radiation exposure, radiation risk estimation, dose reduction strategies, and regulatory options. © RSNA, 2010.

                Author and article information

                Korean J Radiol
                Korean Journal of Radiology
                The Korean Society of Radiology
                Jan-Feb 2012
                23 December 2011
                : 13
                : 1
                : 1-11
                Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hyun Woo Goo, MD, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Korea. Tel: (822) 3010-4388, Fax: (822) 476-0090, hwgoo@
                Copyright © 2012 The Korean Society of Radiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Review Article

                Radiology & Imaging

                ct radiation dose, mdct, radiation dose reduction, low dose ct


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