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      Management of postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia in pediatric patients: a survey of 30 centers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

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          Accidental hypothermia.

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            Dexmedetomidine: a novel drug for the treatment of atrial and junctional tachyarrhythmias during the perioperative period for congenital cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.

            Atrial and junctional tachyarrhythmias occur frequently during the perioperative period for congenital cardiac surgery and can be a cause of increased morbidity and mortality. These rhythm disturbances that may be well tolerated in a normal heart can cause significant hemodynamic instability in patients with congenital heart defects, particularly during the postcardiopulmonary bypass period. Management of these arrhythmias presents more of a challenge, since currently available antiarrhythmic drugs can be ineffective and poorly tolerated. In this study, we examined the possible effect of dexmedetomidine, a primarily sedative drug, on atrial and junctional tachyarrhythmias. Though some animal data have shown that it can prevent certain types of ventricular tachycardia, its therapeutic role during these types of arrhythmias has not been studied. This was a retrospective, nonrandomized, noncontrolled study. Fourteen patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit and who received dexmedetomidine for both, sedation/analgesia and for junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET), atrial ectopic tachycardia (AET), reentry type supraventricular tachycardia (Re-SVT), atrial flutter (AF) or junctional accelerated rhythm (JAR) were included. Dexmedetomidine was used as a primary drug or as a rescue if other antiarrhythmics had been used. Our primary end-points were (a) conversion to normal sinus rhythm (NSR) within 3 min for Re-SVT, and 2 h for all other arrhythmias or (b) heart rate (HR) reduction to improve hemodynamics; JET or =20%, AF < or =150 bpm and for JAR prevention of progression to JET. The mean age and weight were 2 +/- 3 mo and 4 +/- 1.5 kg, respectively. Most of the arrhythmias (79%) occurred during the postoperative period. Dexmedetomidine was used as a primary treatment in nine and as a rescue in five patients. Ten patients (71%) received an initial loading dose of 1.1 +/- 0.5 microg/kg. A continuous infusion, 0.9 +/- 0.3 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) was administered in 12 patients. Thirteen patients' lungs were mechanically ventilated. Adverse effects were seen in four patients (28%). Three had hypotension that responded to fluid administration and one had a possible brief complete atrioventricular (AV) block. Nine of the 14 patients were transiently paced with atrial (seven) or AV sequential (two) pacing to improve AV synchrony. The primary outcome with rhythm and/or HR control was achieved in 13 patients (93%). JET rate decreased from 197 +/- 22 to 165 +/- 17 bpm within 67 +/- 75 min of dexmedetomidine administration. Five of these patients converted to NSR in 39 +/- 31 h and one remained in JAR. All four patients with Re-SVT had resolution of their tachyarrhythmia. Three converted to NSR and one to JAR. One patient with AET (220-270 bpm) responded well with decreasing HR to 120 bpm within 35 min and to NSR in 85 min. One patient with AF failed to respond. In two patients with JAR, neither progressed to JET and HR decreased from 158 +/- 11 to 129 +/- 1 bpm. This preliminary, observational report suggests that dexmedetomidine may have a potential therapeutic role in the acute phase of perioperative atrial and junctional tachyarrhythmias for either HR control or conversion to NSR.
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              Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia in children: incidence, risk factors, and treatment.

              Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) occurs commonly after pediatric cardiac operation. The cause of JET is thought to be the result of an injury to the conduction system during the procedure and may be perpetuated by hemodynamic disturbances or postoperative electrolyte disturbances, namely hypomagnesemia. The purpose of this study was to determine perioperative risk factors for the development of JET. Telemetry for each patient admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit from December 1997 through November 1998 for postoperative cardiac surgical care was examined daily for postoperative JET. A nested case-cohort analysis of 33 patients who experienced JET from 594 consecutively monitored patients who underwent cardiac operation was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with the occurrence of JET. The age range of patients with JET was 1 day to 10.5 years (median, 1.8 months). Univariate analysis revealed that dopamine or milrinone use postoperatively, longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, and younger age were associated with JET. Multivariate modeling elicited that dopamine use postoperatively (odds ratio, 6.2; p = 0.01) and age less than 6 months (odds ratio, 4.0; p = 0.02) were associated with JET. Only 13 (39%) of the patients with JET received therapeutic interventions. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurred in 33 (5.6%) of 594 patients who underwent cardiac operation during the study period. Postoperative dopamine use and younger age were associated with JET. It may be speculated that dopamine should be discontinued in the presence of postoperative JET.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                European Journal of Pediatrics
                Eur J Pediatr
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0340-6199
                1432-1076
                September 2017
                July 21 2017
                September 2017
                : 176
                : 9
                : 1217-1226
                Article
                10.1007/s00431-017-2969-x
                607efb62-e39f-46e6-8f12-805b11b1cb6a
                © 2017

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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