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      Environmental pH, O2 and Capsular Effects on the Geochemical Composition of Statoliths of Embryonic Squid Doryteuthis opalescens

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          Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

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            Replenishment of fish populations is threatened by ocean acidification.

            There is increasing concern that ocean acidification, caused by the uptake of additional CO(2) at the ocean surface, could affect the functioning of marine ecosystems; however, the mechanisms by which population declines will occur have not been identified, especially for noncalcifying species such as fishes. Here, we use a combination of laboratory and field-based experiments to show that levels of dissolved CO(2) predicted to occur in the ocean this century alter the behavior of larval fish and dramatically decrease their survival during recruitment to adult populations. Altered behavior of larvae was detected at 700 ppm CO(2), with many individuals becoming attracted to the smell of predators. At 850 ppm CO(2), the ability to sense predators was completely impaired. Larvae exposed to elevated CO(2) were more active and exhibited riskier behavior in natural coral-reef habitat. As a result, they had 5-9 times higher mortality from predation than current-day controls, with mortality increasing with CO(2) concentration. Our results show that additional CO(2) absorbed into the ocean will reduce recruitment success and have far-reaching consequences for the sustainability of fish populations.
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              Future ocean acidification will be amplified by hypoxia in coastal habitats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                WATEGH
                Water
                Water
                MDPI AG
                2073-4441
                August 2014
                July 30 2014
                : 6
                : 8
                : 2233-2254
                Article
                10.3390/w6082233
                © 2014
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/6/8/2233

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