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      Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Food Advertising on Children's Knowledge about and Preferences for Healthful Food

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          Abstract

          To understand the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a potential contributory factor to childhood obesity: commercial food communication targeted to children. Specifically, it investigates the impact of TV advertising on children's food knowledge and food preferences and correlates these findings with their weight status. Evaluations of traditional information- and education-based interventions suggest that they may not sustainably change food patterns. Based on prior consumer research, we propose five hypotheses, which we then test using a subsample from the IDEFICS study, a large-scale pan-European intervention study on childhood obesity. The results indicate that advertising has divergent effects on children's food knowledge and preferences and that food knowledge is unrelated to food preferences. This finding has important implications for both future research and public policy.

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          Most cited references66

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          2000 CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development.

          This report provides detailed information on how the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts for the United States were developed, expanding upon the report that accompanied the initial release of the charts in 2000. The growth charts were developed with data from five national health examination surveys and limited supplemental data. Smoothed percentile curves were developed in two stages. In the first stage, selected empirical percentiles were smoothed with a variety of parametric and nonparametric procedures. In the second stage, parameters were created to obtain the final curves, additional percentiles and z-scores. The revised charts were evaluated using statistical and graphical measures. The 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts were revised for infants (birth to 36 months) and older children (2 to 20 years). New body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) charts were created. Use of national data improved the transition from the infant charts to those for older children. The evaluation of the charts found no large or systematic differences between the smoothed percentiles and the empirical data. The 2000 CDC growth charts were developed with improved data and statistical procedures. Health care providers now have an instrument for growth screening that better represents the racial-ethnic diversity and combination of breast- and formula-feeding in the United States. It is recommended that these charts replace the 1977 NCHS charts when assessing the size and growth patterns of infants, children, and adolescents.
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            A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children.

            To assess the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on children's body mass index (BMI) as a risk factor for the development of overweight in young children. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University children's hospital. Seventy children aged 4 to 7 years whose BMI was at or above the 75th BMI percentile for age and sex. Children were randomized to an intervention to reduce their television viewing and computer use by 50% vs a monitoring control group that did not reduce television viewing or computer use. Age- and sex-standardized BMI (zBMI), television viewing, energy intake, and physical activity were monitored every 6 months during 2 years. Children randomized to the intervention group showed greater reductions in targeted sedentary behavior (P < .001), zBMI (P < .05), and energy intake (P < .05) compared with the monitoring control group. Socioeconomic status moderated zBMI change (P = .01), with the experimental intervention working better among families of low socioeconomic status. Changes in targeted sedentary behavior mediated changes in zBMI (P < .05). The change in television viewing was related to the change in energy intake (P < .001) but not to the change in physical activity (P =.37). Reducing television viewing and computer use may have an important role in preventing obesity and in lowering BMI in young children, and these changes may be related more to changes in energy intake than to changes in physical activity.
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              Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

              Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Obes
                J Obes
                JOBES
                Journal of Obesity
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-0708
                2090-0716
                2013
                17 April 2013
                : 2013
                Affiliations
                1Copenhagen Business School, Porcelaenshaven 18, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
                2National Research Council, Institute of Food Sciences, Via Roma, 52 A/C, 83100 Avellino, Italy
                3Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 Blok. A-2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
                4University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
                5University of Bremen, Achterstraße 30, 28359 Bremen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Lucia A. Reisch: lr.ikl@ 123456cbs.dk

                Academic Editor: Jana Pařízková

                Article
                10.1155/2013/408582
                3652142
                23691285
                608a33a5-de1a-4e19-b46e-d44b8603e693
                Copyright © 2013 Lucia A. Reisch et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Nutrition & Dietetics

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