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      International Journal of Nanomedicine (submit here)

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      Niosomal carriers enhance oral bioavailability of carvedilol: effects of bile salt-enriched vesicles and carrier surface charge


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          Carvedilol (CRV) is an antihypertensive drug with both alpha and beta receptor blocking activity used to preclude angina and cardiac arrhythmias. To overcome the low, variable oral bioavailability of CRV, niosomal formulations were prepared and characterized: plain niosomes (without bile salts), bile salt-enriched niosomes (bilosomes containing various percentages of sodium cholate or sodium taurocholate), and charged niosomes (negative, containing dicetyl phosphate and positive, containing hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide). All formulations were characterized in terms of encapsulation efficiency, size, zeta potential, release profile, stability, and morphology. Various formulations were administered orally to ten groups of Wistar rats (n=6 per group). The plasma levels of CRV were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and pharmacokinetic properties of different formulations were characterized. Contribution of lymphatic transport to the oral bioavailability of niosomes was also investigated using a chylomicron flow-blocking approach. Of the bile salt-enriched vesicles examined, bilosomes containing 20% sodium cholate (F2) and 30% sodium taurocholate (F5) appeared to give the greatest enhancement of intestinal absorption. The relative bioavailability of F2 and F5 formulations to the suspension was estimated to be 1.84 and 1.64, respectively. With regard to charged niosomes, the peak plasma concentrations (C max) of CRV for positively (F7) and negatively charged formulations (F10) were approximately 2.3- and 1.7-fold higher than after a suspension. Bioavailability studies also revealed a significant increase in extent of drug absorption from charged vesicles. Tissue histology revealed no signs of inflammation or damage. The study proved that the type and concentration of bile salts as well as carrier surface charge had great influences on oral bioavailability of niosomes. Blocking the lymphatic absorption pathway significantly reduced oral bioavailability of CRV niosomes. Overall twofold enhancement in bioavailability in comparison with drug suspension confers the potential of niosomes as suitable carriers for improved oral delivery of CRV.

          Most cited references52

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          Physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect circulation, biodistribution, cellular internalization, and trafficking.

          Nanoparticles have many potential applications in tumor therapy. Systemically administered nanoparticles should remain in circulation for a long time to increase their accumulation in targeted tissues before being cleared by the reticuloendothelial system, and be effectively internalized by the targeted cells, which can be influenced significantly by the physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles, such as particle size, surface properties, and particle shape. This review highlights the impact of the main affects of physicochemical properties on nanoparticle transport behavior in blood, their uptake and clearance by macrophages and their consequent biodistribution, as well as their interaction with targeted cells.
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            Formulation design for poorly water-soluble drugs based on biopharmaceutics classification system: basic approaches and practical applications.

            The poor oral bioavailability arising from poor aqueous solubility should make drug research and development more difficult. Various approaches have been developed with a focus on enhancement of the solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. To complete development works within a limited amount of time, the establishment of a suitable formulation strategy should be a key consideration for the pharmaceutical development of poorly water-soluble drugs. In this article, viable formulation options are reviewed on the basis of the biopharmaceutics classification system of drug substances. The article describes the basic approaches for poorly water-soluble drugs, such as crystal modification, micronization, amorphization, self-emulsification, cyclodextrin complexation, and pH modification. Literature-based examples of the formulation options for poorly water-soluble compounds and their practical application to marketed products are also provided. Classification of drug candidates based on their biopharmaceutical properties can provide an indication of the difficulty of drug development works. A better understanding of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drug substances and the limitations of each delivery option should lead to efficient formulation development for poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Trends and developments in liposome drug delivery systems.

              Since the discovery of liposomes or lipid vesicles derived from self-forming enclosed lipid bilayers upon hydration, liposome drug delivery systems have played a significant role in formulation of potent drugs to improve therapeutics. Currently, most of these liposome formulations are designed to reduce toxicity and to some extent increase accumulation at the target site(s) in a number of clinical applications. The current pharmaceutical preparations of liposome-based therapeutics stem from our understanding of lipid-drug interactions and liposome disposition mechanisms including the inhibition of rapid clearance of liposomes by controlling size, charge, and surface hydration. The insight gained from clinical use of liposome drug delivery systems can now be integrated to design liposomes targeted to tissues and cells with or without expression of target recognition molecules on liposome membranes. Enhanced safety and heightened efficacy have been achieved for a wide range of drug classes, including antitumor agents, antivirals, antifungals, antimicrobials, vaccines, and gene therapeutics. Additional refinements of biomembrane sensors and liposome delivery systems that are effective in the presence of other membrane-bound proteins in vivo may permit selective delivery of therapeutic compounds to selected intracellular target areas. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                29 July 2015
                : 10
                : 4797-4813
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Simin Dadashzadeh, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 14155-6153, Tehran, Iran, Tel +98 21 8820 0070, Fax +98 21 8820 9620, Email sdadashzadeh@ 123456sbmu.ac.ir
                © 2015 Arzani et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Molecular medicine
                niosomes,bile salts,surface charge,bioavailability,oral delivery,lymphatic transport


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