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      Depression, social factors, and pain perception before and after surgery for lumbar and cervical degenerative vertebral disc disease

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial factors on pain levels and depression, before and after surgical treatment, in patients with degenerative lumbar and cervical vertebral disc disease.

          Patients and methods

          The study included 188 patients (98 women, 90 men) who were confirmed to have cervical or lumbar degenerative disc disease on magnetic resonance imaging, and who underwent a single microdiscectomy procedure, with no postoperative surgical complications. All patients completed two questionnaires before and after surgery – the Beck Depression Inventory scale (I–IV) and the Visual Analog Scale for pain (0–10). On hospital admission, all patients completed a social and demographic questionnaire. The first pain and depression questionnaire evaluations were performed on the day of hospital admission (n=188); the second on the day of hospital discharge, 7 days after surgery (n=188); and the third was 6 months after surgery (n=140).

          Results

          Patient ages ranged from 22 to 72 years, and 140 patients had lumbar disc disease (mean age, 42.7±10.99 years) and 44 had cervical disc disease (mean age, 48.9±7.85 years). Before surgery, symptoms of depression were present in 47.3% of the patients (11.7% cervical; 35.6% lumbar), at first postoperative evaluation in 25.1% of patients (7% cervical; 18.1% lumbar), and 6 months following surgery in 31.1% of patients (7.5% cervical; 23.6% lumbar). Patients with cervical disc disease who were unemployed had the highest incidence of depression before and after surgery ( p=0.037). Patients with lumbar disc disease who had a primary level of education or work involving standing had the highest incidence of depression before and after surgery ( p=0.368).

          Conclusion

          This study highlighted the association between social and demographic factors, pain perception, and depression that may persist despite surgical treatment for degenerative vertebral disc disease.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Low Back Pain Rating scale: validation of a tool for assessment of low back pain.

          Low Back Pain Rating scale is an index scale which includes measurements of pain intensity, disability, and physical impairment. The scale was designed to monitor the outcome of clinical trials of low back pain treatment. It has been validated in 58 patients following first-time discectomy. The scale rating can be rapidly carried out and requires no special aids. With slight modification it can be used in office and telephone interviews, as well as postal questionnaires. These modifications only slightly reduce the quantity of information gathered. In the study, a high rater agreement (97.7%) was found without level difference between two observers using the scale. The validation process included: construct validity, criterion-related validity and item bias, relative to Global Assessments pronounced by the patient and an experienced clinician. Low Back Pain Rating scale hs been shown to be valid and reliable in the assessment of low back pain.
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            The association of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging with body mass index in overweight and obese adults: a population-based study.

            To investigate the association of being overweight or obese with the presence, extent, and severity of lumbar disc degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 2,599 southern Chinese volunteers was conducted. Subjects underwent radiographic and clinical assessment, and weight and height were measured. Sagittal T2-weighted MRIs of the lumbar spine were obtained. The presence, extent, and severity of disc degeneration and additional radiographic and clinical parameters were assessed. Asian-modified body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2) ) categories were used. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The study included 1,040 men and 1,559 women (mean age 41.9 years). Disc degeneration was noted in 1,890 subjects (72.7%). BMI was significantly higher in subjects with disc degeneration (mean 23.3 kg/m(2) ) than in subjects without degeneration (mean 21.7 kg/m(2) ) (P < 0.001). A significant increase in the number of degenerated levels (P < 0.001), global severity of disc degeneration (P < 0.001), and end-stage disc degeneration with disc space narrowing (P < 0.001) was noted with elevated BMI, in particular in overweight and obese subjects. In the adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, there was a positive linear trend (r(2) = 0.99) between BMI and the overall presence of disc degeneration in overweight (OR 1.30 [95% CI 1.03-1.62]) and obese (OR 1.79 [95% CI 1.17-2.74]) subjects. End-stage disc degeneration with disc space narrowing was significantly more pronounced in obese subjects (adjusted OR 1.72 [95% CI 1.23-2.41] [reference normal weight]). Our findings, in one of the largest studies to systematically assess lumbar disc degeneration on MRI, indicated a significant association between the presence, extent, and global severity of disc degeneration with weight in overweight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
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              Depression and postoperative complications: an overview

              Background The interaction of depression and anesthesia and surgery may result in significant increases in morbidity and mortality of patients. Major depressive disorder is a frequent complication of surgery, which may lead to further morbidity and mortality. Literature search Several electronic data bases, including PubMed, were searched pairing “depression” with surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative cognitive impairment, cognition disorder, intensive care unit, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Review of the literature The suppression of the immune system in depressive disorders may expose the patients to increased rates of postoperative infections and increased mortality from cancer. Depression is commonly associated with cognitive impairment, which may be exacerbated postoperatively. There is evidence that acute postoperative pain causes depression and depression lowers the threshold for pain. Depression is also a strong predictor and correlate of chronic post-surgical pain. Many studies have identified depression as an independent risk factor for development of postoperative delirium, which may be a cause for a long and incomplete recovery after surgery. Depression is also frequent in intensive care unit patients and is associated with a lower health-related quality of life and increased mortality. Depression and anxiety have been widely reported soon after coronary artery bypass surgery and remain evident one year after surgery. They may increase the likelihood for new coronary artery events, further hospitalizations and increased mortality. Morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery have an increased risk of depression. Postoperative depression may also be associated with less weight loss at one year and longer. The extent of preoperative depression in patients scheduled for lumbar discectomy is a predictor of functional outcome and patient’s dissatisfaction, especially after revision surgery. General postoperative mortality is increased. Conclusions Depression is a frequent cause of morbidity in surgery patients suffering from a wide range of conditions. Depression may be identified through the use of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 or similar instruments. Counseling interventions may be useful in ameliorating depression, but should be subject to clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                04 January 2017
                : 10
                : 89-99
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing Department
                [2 ]Department of Surgery Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, The Nicolaus Copernicus University,Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Renata Jabłońska, Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Science, The Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, The Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, 1 Łukasiewicza St, 85–821 Bydgoszcz, Poland, Tel +48 52 585 5831, Fax +48 52 585 5809, Email renjab_1@ 123456wp.pl
                Article
                jpr-10-089
                10.2147/JPR.S121328
                5222600
                © 2017 Jabłońska et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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