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      Changes of Swimmers’ Emotional States during the Preparation of National Championship: Do Recovery-Stress States Matter?


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          This study examined the trajectories of emotional states and their within-person synergies with perceived stress and recovery during a 4-month training period preceding the French swimming championships. A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis approach was used with 16 high level swimmers. Five waves of assessments of emotional states, perceived stress and recovery were completed. Results indicated that emotional states were characterized by distinct trajectories during the training period preceding a major competition. Specifically, significant positive linear effects of time (i.e., linear increase over time) and negative quadratic effects of squared time (i.e., inverted U shape over time) on anxiety, dejection and anger were observed, whereas the opposite pattern of results was found for happiness and excitement. Moreover, level 2 perceived stress and recovery (i.e., inter-individual predictors) were significantly associated with athletes’ unpleasant and pleasant emotional states respectively. At level 1, perceived recovery (i.e., intra-individual predictor) was positively associated with happiness and excitement and negatively related to anxiety, dejection and anger. Finally, within-person interactions of general stress and recovery with time and squared time reached significance for excitement, whereas within-person interactions of specific and total stress with time and squared time reached significance for anxiety. Overall, this study provided insights into the central role played by perceived stress and recovery on the emotional states experienced by high level swimmers. Operational strategies were suggested in order to optimize the stress-recovery balance and in turn the athletes’ emotional states during a complete training program.

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          The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions.

          In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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            Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis : Modeling Change and Event Occurrence

            Change is constant in everyday life. Infants crawl and then walk, children learn to read and write, teenagers mature in myriad ways, and the elderly become frail and forgetful. Beyond these natural processes and events, external forces and interventions instigate and disrupt change: test scores may rise after a coaching course, drug abusers may remain abstinent after residential treatment. By charting changes over time and investigating whether and when events occur, researchers reveal the temporal rhythms of our lives. This book is concerned with behavioral, social, and biomedical sciences. It offers a presentation of two of today's most popular statistical methods: multilevel models for individual change and hazard/survival models for event occurrence (in both discrete- and continuous-time). Using data sets from published studies, the book takes you step by step through complete analyses, from simple exploratory displays that reveal underlying patterns through sophisticated specifications of complex statistical models.
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              Testing Multilevel Mediation Using Hierarchical Linear Models


                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                23 June 2017
                : 8
                [1] 1Laboratory Psy-DREPI (EA 7458), University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté Dijon, France
                [2] 2Laboratory of Vulnerabilities and Innovation in Sport (EA 7428), University of Claude Bernard Lyon 1 – University of Lyon Villeurbanne, France
                [3] 3Laboratory of Prognostic Markers and Regulatory Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases and Exercise Performance, Health, Innovation Platform (EA 3920), University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté Besançon, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Maurizio Bertollo, Università degli Studi “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti - Pescara, Italy

                Reviewed by: Emmanouil Georgiadis, University of Suffolk, United Kingdom; Edson Filho, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Philippe Vacher, philippe.vacher@ 123456u-bourgogne.fr

                This article was submitted to Movement Science and Sport Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2017 Vacher, Nicolas, Martinent and Mourot.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                multilevel growth curve analyses,ecological conditions,emotions in sports,training,athletes


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