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      Systemic Succinate, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha, and IL-1β Gene Expression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease with and without Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background and Objectives: Cyst pressure induces renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation and kidney hypoxia in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor activation causes metabolic disturbances that are triggered by increased succinate levels and hypoxia inducible factors, which results in inflammation via IL-1β activation. Since we aimed to investigate the role of both inflammation and hypoxia in the clinical course of ADPKD, via succinate levels from sera samples, HIF-1α gene expression from whole blood and urine samples and IL-1βgene expression from whole blood were measured. Methods: One hundred ADPKD patients and 100 matched healthy controls were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted in all participants. Blood, serum, and urine samples were taken after 12-h fasting for the measurement of biochemical parameters and succinate levels. Whole blood and urine samples were used for HIF-1α and IL-1β geneexpression by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: There were significant differences in whole blood HIF-1α, IL-1β geneexpression, and serumsuccinate levels between the ADPKD patients and the control subjects. Whole blood HIF-1αgene expression, IL-1β geneexpression, and serumsuccinate levels were also significantly different in ADPKD patients with hypertension in comparison with normotensive ones ( p < 0.05). Serum succinate levels and blood IL-1β geneexpression were increased in ADPKD patients with high levels of HIF-1α geneexpression ( p = 0.018 and p = 0.029, respectively). Conclusions: Increased age,low eGFR, and HIF-1α and IL-1β geneexpressions were also independently associated with hypertension in ADPKD patients. Inflammation and hypoxia are both relevant factors that might be associated with hypertension in ADPKD.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program.

           G. Myers (2006)
          Reliable serum creatinine measurements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation are critical to ongoing global public health efforts to increase the diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We present an overview of the commonly used methods for the determination of serum creatinine, method limitations, and method performance in conjunction with the development of analytical performance criteria. Available resources for standardization of serum creatinine measurement are discussed, and recommendations for measurement improvement are given. The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Laboratory Working Group reviewed problems related to serum creatinine measurement for estimating GFR and prepared recommendations to standardize and improve creatinine measurement. The NKDEP Laboratory Working Group, in collaboration with international professional organizations, has developed a plan that enables standardization and improved accuracy (trueness) of serum creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories worldwide that includes the use of the estimating equation for GFR based on serum creatinine concentration that was developed from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. The current variability in serum creatinine measurements renders all estimating equations for GFR, including the MDRD Study equation, less accurate in the normal and slightly increased range of serum creatinine concentrations [<133 micromol/L (1.5 mg/dL)], which is the relevant range for detecting CKD [<60 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2)(-1)]. Many automated routine methods for serum creatinine measurement meet or exceed the required precision; therefore, reduction of analytical bias in creatinine assays is needed. Standardization of calibration does not correct for analytical interferences (nonspecificity bias). The bias and nonspecificity problems associated with some of the routine methods must be addressed.
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            Unified criteria for ultrasonographic diagnosis of ADPKD.

            Individuals who are at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are often screened by ultrasound using diagnostic criteria derived from individuals with mutations in PKD1. Families with mutations in PKD2 typically have less severe disease, suggesting a potential need for different diagnostic criteria. In this study, 577 and 371 at-risk individuals from 58 PKD1 and 39 PKD2 families, respectively, were assessed by renal ultrasound and molecular genotyping. Using sensitivity data derived from genetically affected individuals and specificity data derived from genetically unaffected individuals, various diagnostic criteria were compared. In addition, data sets were created to simulate the PKD1 and PKD2 case mix expected in practice to evaluate the performance of diagnostic criteria for families of unknown genotype. The diagnostic criteria currently in use performed suboptimally for individuals with mutations in PKD2 as a result of reduced test sensitivity. In families of unknown genotype, the presence of three or more (unilateral or bilateral) renal cysts is sufficient for establishing the diagnosis in individuals aged 15 to 39 y, two or more cysts in each kidney is sufficient for individuals aged 40 to 59 y, and four or more cysts in each kidney is required for individuals > or = 60 yr. Conversely, fewer than two renal cysts in at-risk individuals aged > or = 40 yr is sufficient to exclude the disease. These unified diagnostic criteria will be useful for testing individuals who are at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the usual clinical setting in which molecular genotyping is seldom performed.
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              Hypoxia promotes fibrogenesis in human renal fibroblasts.

              The mechanisms underlying progressive renal fibrosis are unknown, but the common association of fibrosis and microvascular loss suggests that hypoxia per se may be a fibrogenic stimulus. To determine whether human renal fibroblasts (HRFs), the primary matrix-producing cells in the tubulointerstitium, possess oxygen-sensitive responses relevant to fibrogenesis, cells were exposed to 1% O2 in vitro. Hypoxia simultaneously stimulated extracellular matrix synthesis and suppressed turnover with increased production of collagen alpha1(I) (Coll-I), decreased expression of collagenase, and increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. These effects are time dependent, require new RNA and protein synthesis, and are specific to hypoxia. The changes in Coll-I and TIMP-1 gene expression involve a heme-protein O2 sensor and protein kinase- and tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling. Although hypoxia induced transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), neutralizing anti-TGF-beta1-antibody did not block hypoxia-induced Coll-I and TIMP-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, hypoxic-cell conditioned-medium had no effect on the expression of these mRNAs in naive fibroblasts, suggesting direct effects on gene transcription. Transient transfections identified a hypoxia response element (HRE) in the TIMP-1 promoter and demonstrated HIF-1-dependent promoter activation by decreased ambient pO2. These data suggest that hypoxia co-ordinately up-regulates matrix production and decreases turnover in renal fibroblasts. The results support a role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of fibrosis and provide evidence for novel, direct hypoxic effects on the expression of genes involved in fibrogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRM
                Cardiorenal Med
                10.1159/issn.1664-5502
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1664-3828
                1664-5502
                2019
                November 2019
                18 July 2019
                : 9
                : 6
                : 370-381
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey
                bDepartment of Medical Biology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey
                cDepartment of Biostatistics, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey
                dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey
                eBetul-Ziya Eren Genome and Stem Cell Center, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey
                fDepartment of Genetics, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey
                gTransplant Immunology Division, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                hDepartment of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
                iClinical Research Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Ismail Kocyigit, MD, Department of Nephrology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, TR–38039 Kayseri (Turkey), E-Mail iikocyigit@gmail.com
                Article
                500478 Cardiorenal Med 2019;9:370–381
                10.1159/000500478
                31319406
                © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Article

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