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      Occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in slaughtered domestic rabbits in central China Translated title: Présence et caractérisation génétique de Toxoplasma gondii et Neospora caninum chez des lapins domestiques abattus en Chine centrale

      1 , * , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Rabbit, Genetic characterization

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          Abstract

          Currently, information on the occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of rabbits in China is lacking. In this study, brain and heart samples from 470 slaughtered domestic rabbits were collected in Henan Province, Central China. The occurrence rate of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA detected by nested PCR was 2.8% and 2.1%, respectively. There were no significant differences ( p > 0.05) in the frequency of the two parasite infections in relation to sex, breed, and region. Three out of 13 T. gondii-positive samples were completely or partially genotyped at 11 genetic markers using PCR-RFLP, and one was identified as ToxoDB genotype #9. For N. caninum, three different sequences at the ITS1 region and two genotypes at the MS5 microsatellite locus were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic characterization of N. caninum isolates from rabbits.

          Translated abstract

          Nous manquons actuellement d’informations sur la présence et la caractérisation génétique de Toxoplasma gondii et Neospora caninum dans les tissus de lapins en Chine. Dans cette étude, des échantillons de cerveau et de cœur de 470 lapins domestiques abattus ont été recueillis dans la province du Henan, dans le centre de la Chine. Le taux de présence d’ADN de T. gondii et N. caninum, détecté par PCR imbriquée, était de 2,8 % et 2,1 %, respectivement. Il n’y avait pas de différence significative ( p > 0,05) dans la fréquence des deux infections parasitaires en fonction du sexe, de la race et de la région du lapin. Trois des 13 échantillons positifs pour T. gondii ont été complètement ou partiellement génotypés au moyen de PCR-RFLP sur 11 marqueurs génétiques, et un a été identifié comme étant le génotype #9 de ToxoDB. Pour N. caninum, trois séquences différentes de la région ITS1 et deux génotypes du locus microsatellite MS5 ont été identifiés. À notre connaissance, il s’agit de la première caractérisation génétique d’isolats de N. caninum provenant de lapins.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Moving towards an integrated approach to molecular detection and identification of Toxoplasma gondii.

          The development of simple, sensitive and rapid methods for the detection and identification of Toxoplasma gondii is important for the diagnosis and epidemiological studies of the zoonotic disease toxoplasmosis. In the past 2 decades, molecular methods based on a variety of genetic markers have been developed, each with its advantages and limitations. The application of these methods has generated invaluable information to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeny of T. gondii. However, since most studies focused solely on the detection but not genetic characterization of T. gondii, the information obtained was limited. In this review, we discuss some widely used molecular methods and propose an integrated approach for the detection and identification of T. gondii, in order to generate maximum information for epidemiological, population and phylogenetic studies of this key pathogen.
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            Newly recognized fatal protozoan disease of dogs.

            Histologic sections and case histories from 23 dogs with proven fatal toxoplasmosis-like illness at the Angell Memorial Animal Hospital were reviewed. Toxoplasma gondii was identified in 13 dogs. A newly identified parasite, Neospora caninum, structurally distinct from T gondii, was found in 10 dogs. The newly discovered organism, belonging to a new genus and new species, formed meronts in many tissues of the dogs, especially the brain and spinal cord. Neospora caninum was located directly in the host cell cytoplasm without a parasitophorous vacuole; it divided by endodyogeny, contained more than 11 rhoptries, and did not react with the anti-T gondii serum in the immunoperoxidase test. Meningoencephalomyelitis and myositis were the main lesions associated with N caninum. Ulcerative and fistulous dermatitis was the major lesion in 1 dog.
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              Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in sparrows (Passer domesticus) in the Northeast of Brazil.

              Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes high rates of infection in mammals and birds. Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are synantropic birds which are distributed worldwide. They serve as intermediate hosts for the parasite but are quite resistant to toxoplasmosis. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of T. gondii infection in sparrows using serologic and molecular tests, and to investigate related parasites, such as Neospora caninum and Hammondia sp., using a nested PCR for Toxoplasmatinae DNA followed by sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons. A total of 293 sparrows were trapped at the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. Tissues of 40 animals were available for molecular tests. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 1.02% (3/293) of animals using a hemagglutination test, with titers ranging from 1:32 to 1:128. Toxoplasmatinae DNA was detected in 10/40 (25%) sparrows; after nucleotide sequencing, T. gondii was confirmed in 7/40 (17.5%) birds and N. caninum in 3/40 (7.5%) animals. Sparrows from Brazil were confirmed as intermediate hosts of T. gondii, that reinforces the potential importance of these birds on the transmission of the parasite to cats and other animals that may predate sparrows. In addition, N. caninum was detected for the first time in sparrows. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first wild synantropic bird species identified as intermediate host of N. caninum. These findings seem to have a great epidemiologic impact because of the cosmopolitan distribution of sparrows and due to their increasing population in urban and rural areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                14 June 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology No. 263 Kaiyuan Road, Luolong District Luoyang 471003 PR China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: qwf2012@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                parasite190046 10.1051/parasite/2019035
                10.1051/parasite/2019035
                6568018
                31198175
                © W. Qian et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Short Note

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