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      Study of urban community survey in India: growing trend of high prevalence of hypertension in a developing country


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          The prevalence pattern of hypertension in developing countries is different from that in the developed countries. In India, a very large, populous and typical developing country, community surveys have documented that between three and six decades, prevalence of hypertension has increased by about 30 times among urban dwellers and by about 10 times among the rural inhabitants. Various factors might have contributed to this rising trend and among others, consequences of urbanization such as change in life style pattern, diet and stress, increased population and shrinking employment have been implicated. In this paper, we study the prevalence of hypertension in an urban community of India using the JNC VII criteria, with the aim of identifying the risk factors and suggesting intervention strategies. A total of 1609 respondents out of 1662 individuals participated in our cross-sectional survey of validated and structured questionnaire followed by blood pressure measurement. Results showed pre-hypertensive levels of blood pressures among 35.8% of the participants in systolic group (120-139mm of Hg) and 47.7% in diastolic group (80-89 mm of Hg). Systolic hypertension (140 mm of Hg) was present in 40.9% and diastolic hypertension (90 mm of Hg) in 29.3% of the participants. Age and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension showed progressive rise of systolic and diastolic hypertension in women when compared to men. Men showed progressive rise in systolic hypertension beyond fifth decade of life. Bivariate analysis showed significant relationship of hypertension with age, sedentary occupation, body mass index (BMI), diet, ischemic heart disease, and smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed age and BMI as risk factors, and non-vegetarian diet as protective factor with respect to hypertension. Prevalence of prehypertensives was high among younger subjects - particularly students and laborers who need special attention. Role of non-vegetarian diet as a protective factor might have been related to fish-eating behavior of the sample population, who also use mustard oil as cooking medium - both of which have significant level of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed prevalence of hypertension in this study and other studies suggest the need for a comprehensive national policy to control hypertension in India, and, in other similar developing countries.

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          Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group.

          To assess the ability of antihypertensive drug treatment to reduce the risk of nonfatal and fatal (total) stroke in isolated systolic hypertension. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled. Community-based ambulatory population in tertiary care centers. 4736 persons (1.06%) from 447,921 screenees aged 60 years and above were randomized (2365 to active treatment, 2371 to placebo). Systolic blood pressure ranged from 160 to 219 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure was less than 90 mm Hg. Of the participants, 3161 were not receiving antihypertensive medication at initial contact, and 1575 were. The average systolic blood pressure was 170 mm Hg; average diastolic blood pressure, 77 mm Hg. The mean age was 72 years, 57% were women, and 14% were black. --Participants were stratified by clinical center and by antihypertensive medication status at initial contact. For step 1 of the trial, dose 1 was chlorthalidone, 12.5 mg/d, or matching placebo; dose 2 was 25 mg/d. For step 2, dose 1 was atenolol, 25 mg/d, or matching placebo; dose 2 was 50 mg/d. Primary. Nonfatal and fatal (total) stroke. Secondary. Cardiovascular and coronary morbidity and mortality, all-cause mortality, and quality of life measures. Average follow-up was 4.5 years. The 5-year average systolic blood pressure was 155 mm Hg for the placebo group and 143 mm Hg for the active treatment group, and the 5-year average diastolic blood pressure was 72 and 68 mm Hg, respectively. The 5-year incidence of total stroke was 5.2 per 100 participants for active treatment and 8.2 per 100 for placebo. The relative risk by proportional hazards regression analysis was 0.64 (P = .0003). For the secondary end point of clinical nonfatal myocardial infarction plus coronary death, the relative risk was 0.73. Major cardiovascular events were reduced (relative risk, 0.68). For deaths from all causes, the relative risk was 0.87. In persons aged 60 years and over with isolated systolic hypertension, antihypertensive stepped-care drug treatment with low-dose chlorthalidone as step 1 medication reduced the incidence of total stroke by 36%, with 5-year absolute benefit of 30 events per 1000 participants. Major cardiovascular events were reduced, with 5-year absolute benefit of 55 events per 1000.
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            Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: The Framingham Heart Study.

            The long-term risk for developing hypertension is best described by the lifetime risk statistic. The lifetime risk for hypertension and trends in this risk over time are unknown. To estimate the residual lifetime risk for hypertension in older US adults and to evaluate temporal trends in this risk. Community-based prospective cohort study of 1298 participants from the Framingham Heart Study who were aged 55 to 65 years and free of hypertension at baseline (1976-1998). Residual lifetime risk (lifetime cumulative incidence not adjusted for competing causes of mortality) for hypertension, defined as blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or greater or use of antihypertensive medications. The residual lifetime risks for developing hypertension and stage 1 high blood pressure or higher (greater-than-or-equal to 140/90 mm Hg regardless of treatment) were 90% in both 55- and 65-year-old participants. The lifetime probability of receiving antihypertensive medication was 60%. The risk for hypertension remained unchanged for women, but it was approximately 60% higher for men in the contemporary 1976-1998 period compared with an earlier 1952-1975 period. In contrast, the residual lifetime risk for stage 2 high blood pressure or higher (greater-than-or-equal to 160/100 mm Hg regardless of treatment) was considerably lower in both sexes in the recent period (35%-57% in 1952-1975 vs 35%-44% in 1976-1998), likely due to a marked increase in treatment of individuals with substantially elevated blood pressure. The residual lifetime risk for hypertension for middle-aged and elderly individuals is 90%, indicating a huge public health burden. Although the decline in lifetime risk for stage 2 high blood pressure or higher represents a major achievement, efforts should be directed at the primary prevention of hypertension.
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              Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among the elderly in Bangladesh and India: a multicentre study.

              To evaluate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among elderly individuals in Bangladesh and India. A community-based sample of 1203 elderly individuals (670 women; mean age, 70 years) was selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique from two sites in Bangladesh and three sites in India. The overall prevalence of hypertension (WHO-International Society for Hypertension criteria) was 65% (95% confidence interval = 62-67%). The prevalence was higher in urban than rural areas, but did not differ significantly between the sexes. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher body mass index, higher education status and prevalent diabetes mellitus as important correlates of the prevalence of hypertension. Physical activity, rural residence, and current smoking were inversely related to the prevalence of hypertension. Among study subjects who had hypertension, 45% were aware of their condition, 40% were taking anti-hypertensive medications, but only 10% achieved the level established by the US Sixth Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension (JNC VI)/WHO criteria. A visit to a physician in the previous year, higher educational attainment and being female emerged as important correlates of hypertension awareness. Our findings emphasize the need to implement effective and low cost management regimens based on absolute levels of cardiovascular risk appropriate for the economic context. From a public health perspective, the only sustainable approach to the high prevalence of hypertension in the Indian subcontinent is through a strategy to reduce the average blood pressure in the population.

                Author and article information

                Int J Med Sci
                International Journal of Medical Sciences
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney, Australia )
                1 April 2005
                : 2
                : 2
                : 70-78
                1 Dept Of Neuromedicine, Bangur Institute Of Neurology, Kolkata, India.
                2 Malda District Hospital, Malda, India.
                3 Fogarty Training Program, IPGMER, Kolkata, India.
                Author notes
                Corresponding address: Dr. Shyamal Kumar Das, Q No.- 74, Minto Park Govt. Housing estate, 247/1, A J C Bose road, Kolkata-700027. E-mail: das_sk70@ 123456hotmail.com

                Conflict of interest: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.

                © Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0) which permits the distribution and reproduction for non-commercial purposes, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited.
                : 1 September 2004
                : 10 February 2005
                Research Paper

                prehypertensives,urban study,developing countries,jnc-vii criteria,hypertension,eastern india,non-vegetarian diet


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