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      Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Stage 3 Nephropathy

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          Background/Aims: Some sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥45 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, an approved SGLT2 inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR ≥30 to <60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>). Methods: This analysis used integrated data from four randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies that enrolled patients with T2DM and stage 3 CKD. Results are presented for the overall population as well as subgroups with stage 3a CKD (eGFR ≥45 and <60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>) and stage 3b CKD (eGFR ≥30 and <45 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>). Results: Among all subjects studied with stage 3 CKD, placebo-subtracted reductions in HbA<sub>1c</sub> (-0.38 and -0.47%; p < 0.001), body weight (-1.6 and -1.9%; p < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (-2.8 and -4.4 mm Hg; p < 0.01) were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg, respectively. Decreases in HbA<sub>1c</sub>, body weight, and systolic blood pressure were examined in the stage 3a and 3b CKD subgroups, with greater decreases in HbA<sub>1c</sub>, -0.47% (-0.61, -0.32) and body weight in subjects in stage 3a CKD, -1.8% (-2.3, -1.2) with canagliflozin 100 mg. Initial declines in eGFR were seen early following treatment initiation with canagliflozin, but trended towards baseline over time. The most common adverse events with canagliflozin included genital mycotic infections and adverse events related to reduced intravascular volume likely secondary to osmotic diuresis. Conclusion: In subjectswith T2DM and stage 3 CKD, canagliflozin reduced HbA<sub>1c</sub>, body weight, and blood pressure, and was generally well tolerated.

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          Dose-Ranging Effects of Canagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor, as Add-On to Metformin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

          OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, dose-ranging study in 451 subjects randomized to canagliflozin 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg once daily (QD) or 300 mg twice daily (BID), sitagliptin 100 mg QD, or placebo. Primary end point was change in A1C from baseline through week 12. Secondary end points included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, and overnight urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS Canagliflozin was associated with significant reductions in A1C from baseline (7.6–8.0%) to week 12: −0.79, −0.76, −0.70, −0.92, and −0.95% for canagliflozin 50, 100, 200, 300 mg QD and 300 mg BID, respectively, versus −0.22% for placebo (all P < 0.001) and −0.74% for sitagliptin. FPG was reduced by −16 to −27 mg/dL, and body weight was reduced by −2.3 to −3.4%, with significant increases in urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio. Adverse events were transient, mild to moderate, and balanced across arms except for a non–dose-dependent increase in symptomatic genital infections with canagliflozin (3–8%) versus placebo and sitagliptin (2%). Urinary tract infections were reported without dose dependency in 3–9% of canagliflozin, 6% of placebo, and 2% of sitagliptin arms. Overall incidence of hypoglycemia was low. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin added onto metformin significantly improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and was associated with low incidence of hypoglycemia and significant weight loss. The safety/tolerability profile of canagliflozin was favorable except for increased frequency of genital infections in females.
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            Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

             J-F Yale,  G Bakris,  B Cariou (2013)
            Aims Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in development for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in subjects with T2DM and stage 3 chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 and <50 ml/min/1.73 m2]. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, subjects (N = 269) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26. Prespecified secondary endpoints were change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and proportion of subjects reaching HbA1c <7.0%. Safety was assessed based on adverse event (AE) reports; renal safety parameters (e.g. eGFR, blood urea nitrogen and albumin/creatinine ratio) were also evaluated. Results Both canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg reduced HbA1c from baseline compared with placebo at week 26 (–0.33, –0.44 and –0.03%; p < 0.05). Numerical reductions in FPG and higher proportions of subjects reaching HbA1c < 7.0% were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo (27.3, 32.6 and 17.2%). Overall AE rates were similar for canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo (78.9, 74.2 and 74.4%). Slightly higher rates of urinary tract infections and AEs related to osmotic diuresis and reduced intravascular volume were observed with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with other groups. Transient changes in renal function parameters that trended towards baseline over 26 weeks were observed with canagliflozin. Conclusion Canagliflozin improved glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in subjects with T2DM and Stage 3 CKD.
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              Canagliflozin Compared With Sitagliptin for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Who Do Not Have Adequate Glycemic Control With Metformin Plus Sulfonylurea

              OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, compared with sitagliptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin plus sulfonylurea. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 study, subjects using stable metformin plus sulfonylurea (N = 755) received canagliflozin 300 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Primary end point was change from baseline in A1C at 52 weeks. Secondary end points included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and systolic blood pressure (BP), and percent change in body weight, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. Safety was assessed based on adverse event (AE) reports. RESULTS At 52 weeks, canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated noninferiority and, in a subsequent assessment, showed superiority to sitagliptin 100 mg in reducing A1C (−1.03% [−11.3 mmol/mol] and −0.66% [−7.2 mmol/mol], respectively; least squares mean difference between groups, −0.37% [95% CI, −0.50 to −0.25] or −4.0 mmol/mol [−5.5 to −2.7]). Greater reductions in FPG, body weight, and systolic BP were observed with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin (P < 0.001). Overall AE rates were similar with canagliflozin (76.7%) and sitagliptin (77.5%); incidence of serious AEs and AE-related discontinuations was low for both groups. Higher incidences of genital mycotic infections and osmotic diuresis–related AEs were observed with canagliflozin, which led to one discontinuation. Hypoglycemia rates were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that canagliflozin may be a new therapeutic tool providing better improvement in glycemic control and body weight reduction than sitagliptin, but with increased genital infections in subjects with type 2 diabetes using metformin plus sulfonylurea.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2014
                17 July 2014
                : 40
                : 1
                : 64-74
                aThe University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Ill., Janssen Research &amp; Development, LLC, bTitusville and cRaritan, N.J., USA; dGeorge Institute for Global Health, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia; eUniversity of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester, UK; fUniversity of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man., Canada; gUniversity Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *George Bakris, MD, FASH, FASN, ASH Comprehensive Hypertension Center, The University of Chicago Medicine, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC 1027 Chicago, IL 60637 (USA), E-Mail
                364909 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:64-74
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (, applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 11
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney, Nephropathy, Hypertension, Diabetes


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