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      Multispecific anti-HIV duoCAR-T cells display broad in vitro antiviral activity and potent in vivo elimination of HIV-infected cells in a humanized mouse model

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          Abstract

          Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor–modified T cells (CAR-T) has made substantial contributions to the treatment of certain B cell malignancies. Such treatment modalities could potentially obviate the need for long-term antiretroviral drug therapy in HIV/AIDS. Here, we report the development of HIV-1–based lentiviral vectors that encode CARs targeting multiple highly conserved sites on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein using a two-molecule CAR architecture, termed duoCAR. We show that transduction with lentiviral vectors encoding multispecific anti-HIV duoCARs confer primary T cells with the capacity to potently reduce cellular HIV infection by up to 99% in vitro and >97% in vivo. T cells are the targets of HIV infection, but the transduced T cells are protected from genetically diverse HIV-1 strains. The CAR-T cells also potently eliminated PBMCs infected with broadly neutralizing antibody-resistant HIV strains, including VRC01/3BNC117-resistant HIV-1. Furthermore, multispecific anti-HIV duoCAR-T cells demonstrated long-term control of HIV infection in vivo and prevented the loss of CD4 + T cells during HIV infection using a humanized NSG mouse model of intrasplenic HIV infection. These data suggest that multispecific anti-HIV duoCAR-T cells could be an effective approach for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection.

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          Most cited references 42

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          CD22-CAR T Cells Induce Remissions in CD19-CAR Naïve and Resistant B-ALL

          Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells targeting CD19 mediate potent effects in relapsed/refractory pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) but antigen loss is a frequent cause of resistance to CD19-targeted immunotherapy. CD22 is also expressed on most B-ALL and usually retained following CD19 loss. We report results from a phase I trial testing a novel CD22-CAR in twenty-one children and adults, including 17 previously treated with CD19-directed immunotherapy. Dose dependent anti-leukemic activity was observed with complete remission in 73% (11/15) of patients receiving ≥ 1 × 106 CD22-CART cells/kg, including 5/5 patients with CD19dim/neg B-ALL. Median remission duration was 6 months. Relapses were associated with diminished CD22 site density that likely permitted escape from killing by CD22-CART cells. These results are the first to eastablish the clinical activity of a CD22-CAR in pre-B cell ALL, including in leukemia resistant to anti-CD19 immunotherapy, demonstrating comparable potency to CD19-CART at biologically active doses in B-ALL. They also highlight the critical role played by antigen density in regulating CAR function. (Funded by NCI Intramural Research Program)
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            The Principles of Engineering Immune Cells to Treat Cancer

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              Decade-long safety and function of retroviral-modified chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

              The success of adoptive T cell gene transfer for treatment of cancer and HIV is predicated on generating a response that is both durable and safe. We report long-term results from three clinical trials to evaluate gammaretroviral vector-engineered T cells for HIV. The vector encoded a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of CD4 linked to the CD3ζ signaling chain (CD4ζ). CAR T cells were detected in 98% of samples tested for at least 11 years after infusion at frequencies that exceeded average T cell levels after most vaccine approaches. The CD4ζ transgene retained expression and function. There was no evidence of vector-induced immortalization of cells; integration site distributions showed no evidence of persistent clonal expansion or enrichment for integration sites near genes implicated in growth control or transformation. The CD4ζ T cells had stable levels of engraftment, with decay half-lives that exceeded 16 years, in marked contrast to previous trials testing engineered T cells. These findings indicate that host immunosuppression before T cell transfer is not required to achieve long-term persistence of gene-modified T cells. Further, our results emphasize the safety of T cells modified by retroviral gene transfer in clinical application, as measured in >500 patient-years of follow-up. Thus, previous safety issues with integrating viral vectors are hematopoietic stem cell or transgene intrinsic, and not a general feature of retroviral vectors. Engineered T cells are a promising form of synthetic biology for long-term delivery of protein-based therapeutics. These results provide a framework to guide the therapy of a wide spectrum of human diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Translational Medicine
                Sci. Transl. Med.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6234
                1946-6242
                August 07 2019
                August 07 2019
                August 07 2019
                August 07 2019
                : 11
                : 504
                : eaav5685
                Article
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aav5685
                © 2019

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