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Undergraduate students’ contributions to health service delivery through community-based education: A qualitative study by the MESAU Consortium in Uganda

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      Abstract

      BackgroundIt has been realised that there is need to have medical training closer to communities where the majority of the population lives in order to orient the trainees’ attitudes towards future practice in such communities. Although community based education (CBE) has increasingly been integrated into health professions curricula since the 1990s, the contribution students make to service delivery during CBE remains largely undocumented. In this study, we examined undergraduate health professions students’ contribution to primary health care during their CBE placements.MethodsThis was a qualitative study involving the Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans consortium (MESAU). Overall, we conducted 36 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs): one each with youth, men and women at each of 12 CBE sites. Additionally, we interviewed 64 community key-informants. All data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti Ver7.ResultsTwo themes emerged: students’ contribution at health facility level and students’ contribution at community level. Under theme one, we established that students were not only learning; they also contributed to delivery of health services at the facilities. Their contribution was highly appreciated especially by community members. Students were described as caring and compassionate, available on time and anytime, and as participating in patient care. They were willing to share their knowledge and skills, and stimulated discussion on work ethics. Under the second theme, students were reported to have participated in water, sanitation, and hygiene education in the community. Students contributed to maintenance of safe water sources, educated communities on drinking safe water and on good sanitation practices (hand washing and proper waste disposal). Hygiene promotion was done at household level (food hygiene, hand washing, cleanliness) and to the public. Public health education was extended to institutions. School pupils were sensitised on various health-related issues including sexuality and sexual health.ConclusionHealth professions students at the MESAU institutions contribute meaningfully to primary health care delivery. We recommend CBE to all health training programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

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      A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

      Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time. We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. We estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specific deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2-7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5-7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0-5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8-9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6-8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4-6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2-10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water and sanitation accounting for 0·9% (0·4-1·6) of global DALYs in 2010. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa childhood underweight, HAP, and non-exclusive and discontinued breastfeeding were the leading risks in 2010, while HAP was the leading risk in south Asia. The leading risk factor in Eastern Europe, most of Latin America, and southern sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 was alcohol use; in most of Asia, North Africa and Middle East, and central Europe it was high blood pressure. Despite declines, tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke remained the leading risk in high-income north America and western Europe. High body-mass index has increased globally and it is the leading risk in Australasia and southern Latin America, and also ranks high in other high-income regions, North Africa and Middle East, and Oceania. Worldwide, the contribution of different risk factors to disease burden has changed substantially, with a shift away from risks for communicable diseases in children towards those for non-communicable diseases in adults. These changes are related to the ageing population, decreased mortality among children younger than 5 years, changes in cause-of-death composition, and changes in risk factor exposures. New evidence has led to changes in the magnitude of key risks including unimproved water and sanitation, vitamin A and zinc deficiencies, and ambient particulate matter pollution. The extent to which the epidemiological shift has occurred and what the leading risks currently are varies greatly across regions. In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risks are still those associated with poverty and those that affect children. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

        Objectives To investigate and synthesize reasons for low access, initiation and adherence to antiretroviral drugs by mothers and exposed babies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases were searched (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) for studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from January 2000 to September 2012. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included that met pre-defined criteria. Antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis (maternal/infant) and combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) usage/registration at HIV care and treatment during pregnancy were included as outcomes. Results Of 574 references identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. Four references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Twenty studies were quantitative, 16 were qualitative and eight were mixed methods. Forty-one studies were conducted in Southern and East Africa, two in West Africa, none in Central Africa and one was multi-regional. The majority (n=25) were conducted before combination ART for PMTCT was emphasized in 2006. At the individual-level, poor knowledge of HIV/ART/vertical transmission, lower maternal educational level and psychological issues following HIV diagnosis were the key barriers identified. Stigma and fear of status disclosure to partners, family or community members (community-level factors) were the most frequently cited barriers overall and across time. The extent of partner/community support was another major factor impeding or facilitating the uptake of PMTCT ARVs, while cultural traditions including preferences for traditional healers and birth attendants were also common. Key health-systems issues included poor staff-client interactions, staff shortages, service accessibility and non-facility deliveries. Conclusions Long-standing health-systems issues (such as staffing and service accessibility) and community-level factors (particularly stigma, fear of disclosure and lack of partner support) have not changed over time and continue to plague PMTCT programmes more than 10 years after their introduction. The potential of PMTCT programmes to virtually eliminate vertical transmission of HIV will remain elusive unless these barriers are tackled. The prominence of community-level factors in this review points to the importance of community-driven approaches to improve uptake of PMTCT interventions, although packages of solutions addressing barriers at different levels will be important.
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          Access to and utilisation of health services for the poor in Uganda: a systematic review of available evidence.

          Inequalities in the burden of disease and access to health care is a prominent concern in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African countries. This is a systematic review of socio-economic differences in morbidity and access to health care in Uganda. It includes published studies from electronic databases and official reports from surveys done by government, bilateral and multilateral agencies and universities. The outcome measures studied were: the distribution of HIV/AIDS; maternal and child morbidity; and access to and utilisation of health services for people belonging to different socio-economic and vulnerability groups. Forty-eight of 678 identified studies met our inclusion criteria. Results indicate that the poor and vulnerable experience a greater burden of disease but have lower access to health services than the less poor. Barriers to access arise from both the service providers and the consumers. Distance to service points, perceived quality of care and availability of drugs are key determinants of utilisation. Other barriers are perceived lack of skilled staff in public facilities, late referrals, health worker attitude, costs of care and lack of knowledge. Longitudinal and controlled studies are needed to see if strategies to improve access to services reach the poor.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, New Mulago Hospital Complex-School of Public Health Building Suite nr 307, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
            [ ]School of Biomedical Sciences, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
            [ ]School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
            [ ]School of Social Sciences, Makerere University College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
            [ ]Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Kampala, Uganda
            [ ]Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
            [ ]School of Health Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Bushenyi, Uganda
            [ ]Office of the Principal, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
            [ ]Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
            Contributors
            latuyambe@yahoo.com , atuyambe@musph.ac.ug
            rbaingana@gmail.com
            pskibira@musph.ac.ug
            annekatahoire@yahoo.co.uk
            elly@chs.mak.ac.ug
            mafigiridk@yahoo.com
            fayebare@gmail.com
            henry.oboke@gmail.com
            christineacio@yahoo.com
            kmugagga@yahoo.com
            snmbalinda@gmail.com
            ruthnabaggala@gmail.com
            gadruzaaza@yahoo.co.uk
            warubaku@yahoo.com
            samantham500@gmail.com
            peterakera@yahoo.com
            kabaleimc@gmail.com
            dpeters@jhsph.edu
            sewankam@infocom.co.ug
            Journal
            BMC Med Educ
            BMC Med Educ
            BMC Medical Education
            BioMed Central (London )
            1472-6920
            25 April 2016
            25 April 2016
            2016
            : 16
            27114073
            4843200
            626
            10.1186/s12909-016-0626-0
            © Atuyambe et al. 2016

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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            © The Author(s) 2016

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