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      Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification?

      Plant and Soil
      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper1

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            Tansley Review No. 111

            Zinc deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies in plants and causes severe reductions in crop production. There are a number of physiological impairments in Zn-deficient cells causing inhibition of the growth, differentiation and development of plants. Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative damage to critical cell compounds resulting from attack by reactive O2 species (ROS) is the basis of disturbances in plant growth caused by Zn deficiency. Zinc interferes with membrane-bound NADPH oxidase producing ROS. In Zn-deficient plants the iron concentration increases, which potentiates the production of free radicals. The Zn nutritional status of plants influences photooxidative damage to chloroplasts, catalysed by ROS. Zinc-deficient leaves are highly light-sensitive, rapidly becoming chlorotic and necrotic when exposed to high light intensity. Zinc plays critical roles in the defence system of cells against ROS, and thus represents an excellent protective agent against the oxidation of several vital cell components such as membrane lipids and proteins, chlorophyll, SH-containing enzymes and DNA. The cysteine, histidine and glutamate or aspartate residues represent the most critical Zn- binding sites in enzymes, DNA-binding proteins (Zn-finger proteins) and membrane proteins. In addition, animal studies have shown that Zn is involved in inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death) which is preceded by DNA and membrane damage through reactions with ROS. contents Summary 185 I. introduction 186 II. effect of zinc on production of reactive oxygen species 186 III. membrane damage by reactive oxygen species 193 III. membrane damage by reactive oxygen species 193 V. involvement of zinc in plant stress tolerance 199 VI. conclusions 199 Acknowledgements 200 References 200.
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              Zinc transporters and the cellular trafficking of zinc.

              David Eide (2006)
              Zinc is an essential nutrient for all organisms because this metal serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many different proteins. Zinc-dependent proteins are found in the cytoplasm and within many organelles of the eukaryotic cell including the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, secretory vesicles, and mitochondria. Thus, cells require zinc transport mechanisms to allow cells to efficiently accumulate the metal ion and distribute it within the cell. Our current knowledge of these transport systems in eukaryotes is the focus of this review.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant and Soil
                Plant Soil
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                0032-079X
                1573-5036
                January 2008
                November 28 2007
                January 2008
                : 302
                : 1-2
                : 1-17
                Article
                10.1007/s11104-007-9466-3
                60d01b22-b69b-424e-88e4-748e9455c5d8
                © 2008
                History

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