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      Asenapine pharmacokinetics and tolerability in a pediatric population

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          This study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, safety, and tolerability of asenapine, and to develop a population PK model in pediatric patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or other psychiatric disorders.

          Methods

          Two Phase I multiple ascending-dose studies were conducted to evaluate the PK, safety, and tolerability of sublingual asenapine in pediatric patients (age 10–17 years) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Patients received asenapine 1–10 mg twice daily for up to 12 days. PK parameters (maximum concentration [C max], area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours [AUC 0–12], time to C max [T max], and half-life) were summarized for asenapine with descriptive statistics, and safety parameters were collected. A population PK model, which included the two Phase I studies and two additional Phase III efficacy studies (asenapine 2.5–10 mg twice daily for up to 8 weeks, age 10–17 years), was developed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling based on a previously developed adult PK model. The final model was used in simulations to obtain asenapine-exposure estimates across pediatric subgroups and to determine if intrinsic covariates warrant dose adjustments.

          Results

          The PK of asenapine showed rapid absorption (T max ~1 hour) with an apparent terminal half-life between 16 and 32 hours. Increases in mean C max and AUC 0–12 appeared to be dose-proportional in one study and near dose-proportional in the second study. Steady state was attained within 8 days. The most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events were dysgeusia, sedation, and oral hypoesthesia. Simulation-based estimates of C max and AUC 0–12 were similar for pediatric and adult patients; age, body-mass index, race, and sex were not associated with changes in asenapine exposure.

          Conclusion

          Asenapine was generally safe and well tolerated in pediatric patients aged 10–17 years. PK and safety data were similar to that observed in the adult population. Intrinsic factors had no significant impact on asenapine exposure, indicating there is no need for dose adjustments in the pediatric population.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Clinical pharmacology of atypical antipsychotics: an update

          This review will concentrate on the clinical pharmacology, in particular pharmacodynamic data, related to atypical antipsychotics, clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone, olanzapine, que¬tiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone and cariprazine. A summary of their acute pharmacokinetics properties are also reported. Four new second-generation antipsychotics are available: iloperidone, asenapine, lurasidone and in the next future cariprazine. Similar to ziprasidone and aripiprazole, these new agents are advisable for the lower propensity to give weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in comparison with older second-generation antipsychotics such as olanzapine or clozapine. Actually lurasidone seems to be best in terms of minimizing unwanted alterations in body weight and metabolic variables. Therapeutic drug monitoring is not strictly necessary for all of the new antipsychotic drugs because there are no unequivocal data supporting a relationship between plasma drug levels and clinical outcomes or side effects. The exception can be represented by clozapine for which plasma levels of 350-420 ng/ml are reported to be associated with an increased probability of a good clinical response. Also for olanzapine an established therapeutic range (20-50 ng/ml) is proposed to yield an optimal response and minimize side effects.
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            A 3-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of asenapine in the treatment of acute mania in bipolar mania and mixed states.

            Asenapine is approved for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This was a 3-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of asenapine for treating acute bipolar mania. After a single-blind placebo run-in period, adults (n = 488) experiencing manic or mixed episodes were randomized to flexible-dose sublingual asenapine (10 mg BID on day 1; 5 or 10 mg BID thereafter; n = 194), placebo (n = 104), or oral olanzapine (15 mg BID on day 1; 5-20 mg QD thereafter; n = 191). Primary efficacy, change in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score from baseline to day 21, was assessed using analysis of covariance with last observation carried forward [(LOCF); primary analysis]. A mixed model for repeated measures [(MMRM); prespecified secondary analysis] was also used to assess efficacy. Tolerability and safety assessments included adverse events, physical examinations, extrapyramidal symptom ratings, and laboratory values. Mean daily dosages were asenapine 18.2 mg and olanzapine 15.8 mg. Significantly greater least squares (LS) mean +/- SE changes in YMRS scores were observed on day 2 with asenapine (-3.0 +/- 0.4) and olanzapine (-3.4 +/- 0.4) versus placebo (-1.5 +/- 0.5, both p < 0.01) and were maintained until day 21 (-10.8 +/- 0.8 with asenapine, -12.6 +/- 0.8 with olanzapine; both p < or = 0.0001 versus placebo, -5.5 +/- 1.1) with LOCF. The results of MMRM analyses were consistent with those of LOCF. Asenapine had a modest impact on weight and metabolic measures. These results indicate that asenapine is rapidly acting, efficacious, and well tolerated for patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing an acute manic episode.
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              Asenapine in the treatment of acute mania in bipolar I disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

              Asenapine is indicated in adults for acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder with or without psychotic features. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of asenapine in bipolar I disorder. Adults experiencing manic or mixed episodes were randomized to 3 weeks of flexible-dose treatment with sublingual asenapine (day 1: 10mg BID, 5 or 10mg BID thereafter; n=185), placebo (n=98), or oral olanzapine (day 1: 15 mg QD, 5-20mg QD thereafter; n=205). Primary efficacy, YMRS total score change from baseline to day 21, was assessed using ANCOVA with last observation carried forward. Mean daily doses were 18.4 mg asenapine and 15.9mg olanzapine. Least squares mean changes in YMRS total score on day 21 were significantly greater with asenapine than placebo (-11.5 vs -7.8; P<0.007), with advantage seen as early as day 2 (-3.2 vs -1.7; P=0.022). Changes with olanzapine on days 2 and 21 also exceeded placebo (both P<0.0001). YMRS response and remission rates with olanzapine, but not asenapine, exceeded those of placebo. Incidence of EPS-related adverse events was 10.3%, 3.1%, and 6.8% with asenapine, placebo, and olanzapine, respectively; incidence of clinically significant weight gain (7.2%; 1.2%; 19.0%). Mean weight change (baseline to endpoint) was 0.9, 0.1, and 2.6 kg with asenapine, placebo, and olanzapine, respectively. As this short-term study was designed for comparisons with placebo, any comparisons between asenapine and olanzapine should be interpreted cautiously. Asenapine was superior to placebo in reducing YMRS total score and was well tolerated. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                30 August 2018
                : 12
                : 2677-2693
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Early Stage Development, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Oss, the Netherlands, peter.dogterom@ 123456qps.com
                [2 ]Atlanta Center for Medical Research, Atlanta, GA
                [3 ]Merck, Kenilworth, NJ
                [4 ]Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
                [5 ]Allergan, Madison, NJ, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Peter Dogterom, QPS Holdings, PO Box 137, Groningen 9700 AC, the Netherlands, Tel +31 61 000 0196, Fax +31 50 304 8001, Email peter.dogterom@ 123456qps.com
                Article
                dddt-12-2677
                10.2147/DDDT.S171475
                6124477
                © 2018 Dogterom et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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