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      Obesity, metabolic health, and the risk of end-stage renal disease

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          Abstract

          Obesity is associated with chronic kidney disease progression. Whether metabolic risk factors modify this association is unclear. Here we examined associations of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health with risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the Reason for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Among 21,840 participants eligible for analysis, 247 developed ESRD (mean follow-up of 6.3 years). Metabolic health significantly modified the association of BMI with ESRD. In models stratified by presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of ESRD in those without (hazard ratio per 5 kg/m 2 increase in BMI 0.70, 95%CI 0.52,0.95), but not those with (hazard ratio, 1.06) metabolic syndrome. In models stratified by weight and metabolic health, compared to normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) participants without metabolic syndrome the overweight individuals (BMI 25–29.9) and obese individuals (BMI of 30 or more) with metabolic syndrome had greater risk of ESRD (hazard ratios of 2.03 and 2.29, respectively), whereas obesity without the metabolic syndrome was associated with lower risk of ESRD (hazard ratio 0.47). Thus, higher BMI is associated with lower ESRD risk in those without but not those with metabolic syndrome.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old.

          Obesity, defined by a body-mass index (BMI) (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30.0 or more, is associated with an increased risk of death, but the relation between overweight (a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9) and the risk of death has been questioned. We prospectively examined BMI in relation to the risk of death from any cause in 527,265 U.S. men and women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort who were 50 to 71 years old at enrollment in 1995-1996. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Relative risks and 95 percent confidence intervals were adjusted for age, race or ethnic group, level of education, smoking status, physical activity, and alcohol intake. We also conducted alternative analyses to address potential biases related to preexisting chronic disease and smoking status. During a maximum follow-up of 10 years through 2005, 61,317 participants (42,173 men and 19,144 women) died. Initial analyses showed an increased risk of death for the highest and lowest categories of BMI among both men and women, in all racial or ethnic groups, and at all ages. When the analysis was restricted to healthy people who had never smoked, the risk of death was associated with both overweight and obesity among men and women. In analyses of BMI during midlife (age of 50 years) among those who had never smoked, the associations became stronger, with the risk of death increasing by 20 to 40 percent among overweight persons and by two to at least three times among obese persons; the risk of death among underweight persons was attenuated. Excess body weight during midlife, including overweight, is associated with an increased risk of death. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Risk factors for end-stage renal disease: 25-year follow-up.

            Few cohort studies have focused on risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This investigation evaluated the prognostic value of several potential novel risk factors for ESRD after considering established risk factors. We studied 177 570 individuals from a large integrated health care delivery system in northern California who volunteered for health checkups between June 1, 1964, and August 31, 1973. Initiation of ESRD treatment was ascertained using US Renal Data System registry data through December 31, 2000. A total of 842 cases of ESRD were observed during 5 275 957 person-years of follow-up. This comprehensive evaluation confirmed the importance of established risk factors, including the following: male sex, older age, proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, lower educational attainment, and African American race, as well as higher blood pressure, body mass index, and serum creatinine level. The 2 most potent risk factors were proteinuria and excess weight. For proteinuria, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 7.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.35-11.67) for 3 to 4+ on urine dipstick, 3.59 (2.82-4.57) for 1 to 2+ on urine dipstick, and 2.37 (1.79-3.14) for trace vs negative on urine dipstick. For excess weight, the HRs were 4.39 (95% CI, 3.38-5.70) for class 2 to class 3 obesity, 3.11 (2.51-3.84) for class 1 obesity, and 1.65 (1.39-1.97) for overweight vs normal weight. Furthermore, several independent novel risk factors for ESRD were identified, including lower hemoglobin level (1.33 [1.08-1.63] for lowest vs highest quartile), higher serum uric acid level (2.14 [1.65-2.77] for highest vs lowest quartile), self-reported history of nocturia (1.36 [1.17-1.58]), and family history of kidney disease (HR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.02-1.90]). We confirmed the importance of established ESRD risk factors in this large cohort with broad sex and racial/ethnic representation. Lower hemoglobin level, higher serum uric acid level, self-reported history of nocturia, and family history of kidney disease are independent risk factors for ESRD.
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              Body mass index and the risk of development of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort.

              Obesity is associated with proteinuria and could be a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few studies have examined the significance of body mass index (BMI) as a risk factor for the development of ESRD in the general population. We examined the relationship between BMI and the development of ESRD using data from a 1983 community-based screening in Okinawa, Japan. Screenees who developed ESRD by the end of 2000 were identified through the Okinawa Dialysis Study registry. BMI data were available for 100,753 screenees (47,504 men and 53,249 women) aged >/=20 years. The cumulative incidence of ESRD was analyzed according to the quartile of BMI: /=25.5 kg/m(2). The mean (SD) BMI of the screenees was 23.4 (3.3) kg/m(2) (range 7.9 to 59.1 kg/m(2)); the mean was 23.4 kg/m(2) for both men and women. During the follow-up period, 404 screenees (232 men and 172 women) developed ESRD. The cumulative incidences of ESRD per 1000 screenees were, from the lowest to highest BMI quartile, 2.48, 3.79, 3.86, and 5.81. The odds ratio (95% CI) of BMI for developing ESRD, after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and proteinuria, was 1.273 (1.121-1.446, P= 0.0002) for men and 0.950 (0.825-1.094, not significant) for women. We found that BMI was associated with an increased risk of the development of ESRD in men in the general population in Okinawa. The maintenance of optimal body weight may reduce the risk of ESRD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                0323470
                5428
                Kidney Int
                Kidney Int.
                Kidney international
                0085-2538
                1523-1755
                28 November 2014
                17 December 2014
                June 2015
                01 December 2015
                : 87
                : 6
                : 1216-1222
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
                [2 ]Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
                [3 ]Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
                [5 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, Loyola University, Maywood, IL
                [6 ]Department of Epidemiology and Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Orlando M. Gutiérrez, MD, MMSc, University of Alabama at Birmingham, ZRB 614, 1720 2 nd AVE S, Birmingham, AL 35294-0006 phone: 205-996-2736 fax: 205-996-6465 ogutierr@ 123456uab.edu
                Article
                NIHMS643859
                10.1038/ki.2014.384
                4449828
                25517912
                Categories
                Article

                Nephrology

                nutrition, inflammation, lipids, insulin resistance, obesity, chronic kidney disease

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