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      Biodegradable Cellulose-based Hydrogels: Design and Applications

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          Abstract

          Hydrogels are macromolecular networks able to absorb and release water solutions in a reversible manner, in response to specific environmental stimuli. Such stimuli-sensitive behaviour makes hydrogels appealing for the design of ‘smart’ devices, applicable in a variety of technological fields. In particular, in cases where either ecological or biocompatibility issues are concerned, the biodegradability of the hydrogel network, together with the control of the degradation rate, may provide additional value to the developed device. This review surveys the design and the applications of cellulose-based hydrogels, which are extensively investigated due to the large availability of cellulose in nature, the intrinsic degradability of cellulose and the smart behaviour displayed by some cellulose derivatives.

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          Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery

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            Hydrogels in controlled release formulations: network design and mathematical modeling.

            Over the past few decades, advances in hydrogel technologies have spurred development in many biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery. Many novel hydrogel-based delivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfill the ever-increasing needs of the pharmaceutical and medical fields. Mathematical modeling plays an important role in facilitating hydrogel network design by identifying key parameters and molecule release mechanisms. The objective of this article is to review the fundamentals and recent advances in hydrogel network design as well as mathematical modeling approaches related to controlled molecule release from hydrogels. In the first section, the niche roles of hydrogels in controlled release, molecule release mechanisms, and hydrogel design criteria for controlled release applications are discussed. Novel hydrogel systems for drug delivery including biodegradable, smart, and biomimetic hydrogels are reviewed in the second section. Several mechanisms have been elucidated to describe molecule release from polymer hydrogel systems including diffusion, swelling, and chemically-controlled release. The focus of the final part of this article is discussion of emerging hydrogel delivery systems and challenges associated with modeling the performance of these devices.
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              Formation of the scab and the rate of epithelization of superficial wounds in the skin of the young domestic pig.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International
                1996-1944
                16 April 2009
                June 2009
                : 2
                : 2
                : 353-373
                Affiliations
                Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy; E-Mails: christian.demitri@ 123456unile.it (C.D.); marta.madaghiele@ 123456unile.it (M.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: alessandro.sannino@ 123456unile.it ; Tel. +39-0832-297-259; Fax: +39-0832-297-240
                Article
                materials-02-00353
                10.3390/ma2020353
                5445704
                610c1bbb-31a1-444d-a849-2dff0c0bcd32
                © 2009 by the authors;

                licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 28 February 2009
                : 03 April 2009
                : 09 April 2009
                Categories
                Review

                hydrogels,cellulose,biodegradation
                hydrogels, cellulose, biodegradation

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