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      Efficacy of Intravenous Administration of Landiolol in Patients With Acute Heart Failure and Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmia

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          Patients with acute heart failure (HF) complicated by supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) often receive continuous intravenous infusion of landiolol or diltiazem for rate control. It is unclear whether the interval from initiation of infusion to commencement of oral beta-blocker (BB) therapy differs for these two drugs.


          From January 2013 to July 2015, 94 consecutive patients were hospitalized for acute HF complicated by SVT. After 35 patients were excluded, the remaining 59 were divided into groups treated with diltiazem or landiolol. We investigated the blood pressure, heart rate, New York Heart Association classification, brain natriuretic peptide, chest X-ray film, echocardiographic findings (ejection fraction (EF)), time until commencement of oral BB therapy, and hospital stay.


          There were no significant between-group differences of heart rate, blood pressure, or the severity of HF. The time until commencing oral BB therapy was significantly shorter in the landiolol group compared with the diltiazem group (median: 2 vs. 4 days, P = 0.002), but there was no significant difference in hospital stay. This interval was significantly shorter in patients with a reduced EF in the landiolol group (median: 2 days) compared with those with a reduced EF in the diltiazem group (median: 5 days, P = 0.008), and patients with a preserved EF in the landiolol group tended to have a shorter interval (median: 2 days) than those with a preserved EF in the diltiazem group (median: 4 days, P = 0.092).


          Switching to oral BBs was accomplished earlier with landiolol than with diltiazem.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms.

          We have presented recommendations for the optimum acquisition of quantitative two-dimensional data in the current echocardiographic environment. It is likely that advances in imaging may enhance or supplement these approaches. For example, three-dimensional reconstruction methods may greatly augment the accuracy of volume determination if they become more efficient. The development of three-dimensional methods will depend in turn on vastly improved transthoracic resolution similar to that now obtainable by transesophageal echocardiography. Better resolution will also make the use of more direct methods of measuring myocardial mass practical. For example, if the epicardium were well resolved in the long-axis apical views, the myocardial shell volume could be measured directly by the biplane method of discs rather than extrapolating myocardial thickness from a single short-axis view. At present, it is our opinion that current technology justifies the clinical use of the quantitative two-dimensional methods described in this article. When technically feasible, and if resources permit, we recommend the routine reporting of left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic volume, mass, and wall motion score.
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            Lenient versus strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation.

            Rate control is often the therapy of choice for atrial fibrillation. Guidelines recommend strict rate control, but this is not based on clinical evidence. We hypothesized that lenient rate control is not inferior to strict rate control for preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. We randomly assigned 614 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation to undergo a lenient rate-control strategy (resting heart rate <110 beats per minute) or a strict rate-control strategy (resting heart rate <80 beats per minute and heart rate during moderate exercise <110 beats per minute). The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, hospitalization for heart failure, and stroke, systemic embolism, bleeding, and life-threatening arrhythmic events. The duration of follow-up was at least 2 years, with a maximum of 3 years. The estimated cumulative incidence of the primary outcome at 3 years was 12.9% in the lenient-control group and 14.9% in the strict-control group, with an absolute difference with respect to the lenient-control group of -2.0 percentage points (90% confidence interval, -7.6 to 3.5; P<0.001 for the prespecified noninferiority margin). The frequencies of the components of the primary outcome were similar in the two groups. More patients in the lenient-control group met the heart-rate target or targets (304 [97.7%], vs. 203 [67.0%] in the strict-control group; P<0.001) with fewer total visits (75 [median, 0], vs. 684 [median, 2]; P<0.001). The frequencies of symptoms and adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with permanent atrial fibrillation, lenient rate control is as effective as strict rate control and is easier to achieve. ( number, NCT00392613.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Predischarge initiation of carvedilol in patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure: results of the Initiation Management Predischarge: Process for Assessment of Carvedilol Therapy in Heart Failure (IMPACT-HF) trial.

              The Initiation Management Predischarge: Process for Assessment of Carvedilol Therapy in Heart Failure (IMPACT-HF) trial was an investigator-initiated study to evaluate if predischarge carvedilol initiation in stabilized patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) increased the number of patients treated with beta-blockade at 60 days after randomization without increasing side effects or length of hospital stay. Beta-blockers are underused in HF. Predischarge initiation may improve the use of evidence-based beta-blockade. The IMPACT-HF was a prospective, randomized open-label trial conducted in 363 patients hospitalized for HF. Patients were randomized to carvedilol initiation pre-hospital discharge or to postdischarge initiation (>2 weeks) of beta-blockade at the physicians' discretion. The primary end point of the study was the number of patients treated with beta-blockade at 60 days after randomization. Secondary end points included the number of patients discontinuing beta-blockade, median dose achieved, and a composite of death, rehospitalization, unscheduled visit for HF, or > or =50% increase in oral diuretic, new oral diuretic, or any intravenous therapy with diuretics, inotropes, or other vasoactive agents. At 60 days 165 patients (91.2%) randomized to predischarge carvedilol initiation were treated with a beta-blocker, compared with 130 patients (73.4%) randomized to initiation postdischarge (p < 0.0001). Predischarge initiation was not associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events. The median length of stay was five days in both groups. Predischarge initiation of carvedilol in stabilized patients hospitalized for HF improved the use of beta-blockade at 60 days without increasing side effects or length of stay. Predischarge initiation may be one approach to improve beta-blocker use in this population.

                Author and article information

                J Clin Med Res
                J Clin Med Res
                Elmer Press
                Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
                Elmer Press
                May 2017
                01 April 2017
                : 9
                : 5
                : 426-432
                [a ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                [b ]Corresponding Author: Shunsuke Kiuchi, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan. Email: syunnsuke@
                Copyright 2017, Kiuchi et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, hospital stay, heart rate, blood pressure


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