Pituitary morphology in patients with Prop1 gene mutations varies. Most patients demonstrate a normal or small pituitary gland. Occasionally, pituitary enlargement of undetermined origin has also been detected. In the present study we use long-term magnetic resonance imaging findings to characterize the morphological abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 15 patients (aged 2.5-45 yr) with combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by Prop1 gene mutations (GA296del/GA296del in seven, GA296del/A150del in two, A150del/A150del in five, and GA296del/R73H in one patient) and attempt to uncover the origin and nature of the pituitary enlargement. Small pituitary gland was detected in seven patients (25.2 +/- 14.4 yr of age), normal pituitary size in three patients (10.2 +/- 5.8 yr of age), and pituitary enlargement in five patients (6.5 +/- 2.7 yr of age). The pituitary enlargement consisted of a nonenhancing mass lesion interposed between the normally enhancing anterior lobe and the neurohypophysis. The pituitary stalk was displaced anteriorly, whereas the neurohypophysis was orthotopic, displaying a normal signal. Spontaneous regression of the mass lesion with normalization of the pituitary stalk position was observed in three patients. Our data indicate that although a small pituitary gland is usually observed in older subjects, a significant number of young patients with Prop1 gene mutations demonstrate pituitary enlargement with subsequent regression. The distinct magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the pituitary enlargement in our patients in conjunction with pertinent data from Prop1-deficient mice suggest that the mass causing the pituitary enlargement most likely originates from the intermediate lobe.