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      Antimicrobial Peptides

      review-article

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , *

      Pharmaceuticals

      MDPI

      antimicrobial peptide, biofilm, persister

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          Abstract

          The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics).

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          Most cited references213

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          Treatment of infections associated with surgical implants.

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            Riddle of biofilm resistance.

            K. Lewis (2001)
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              Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents.

              Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. Recent work has indicated that slow growth and/or induction of an rpoS-mediated stress response could contribute to biocide resistance. The physical and/or chemical structure of exopolysaccharides or other aspects of biofilm architecture could also confer resistance by exclusion of biocides from the bacterial community. Finally, biofilm-grown bacteria might develop a biofilm-specific biocide-resistant phenotype. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the biofilm, it is likely that there are multiple resistance mechanisms at work within a single community. Recent research has begun to shed light on how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
                Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
                pharmaceuticals
                Pharmaceuticals
                MDPI
                1424-8247
                28 November 2013
                December 2013
                : 6
                : 12
                : 1543-1575
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA; E-Mail: abahar@ 123456syr.edu
                [2 ]Syracuse Biomaterials Institute, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
                [3 ]Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
                [4 ]Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: dren@ 123456syr.edu ; Tel.: +1-315-443-4409; Fax: +1-315-443-9175.
                Article
                pharmaceuticals-06-01543
                10.3390/ph6121543
                3873676
                24287494
                611bf6d7-1666-4d94-b7a7-452c00111d3f
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                antimicrobial peptide, biofilm, persister

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