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      Pandemic COVID-19: current status and challenges of antiviral therapies

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          Abstract

          The pandemic COVID-19, caused by a new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection, has infected over 6 million individuals and caused more than 364,000 death worldwide. Currently, there is no specific drug to treating this disease. Here we summarized the mechanisms of antiviral therapies and the clinic findings from different countries. Antiviral chemotherapies have been conducted by in multiple cohorts in different counties. Although FDA has fast approved remdesivir for treating COVID-19, it only speeds up recovery from COVID-19 with mildly reduced mortality. The chloroquine was suggested a potential drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its in vitro antiviral effects, it is imperative high-quality data from worldwide clinical trials are necessitated for an approved therapy. In terms of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy, although WHO has stopped all the clinic trials due to its strong side-effects in COVID patients, large scale clinical trials with a long-term outcome follow-up may warrant HCQ and azithromycin combination in combating the virus. Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy suggested its safety use in SARS-CoV-2 infection; but both CP immunotherapy and NK cellular therapy must be manufactured and utilized according to scrupulous ethical and controlled conditions to guarantee a possible role of these products of human origin. Further research should be conducted to define the exact mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, suitable animal models or ex vivo human lung tissues aid in studying replication, transmission and spread of the novel viruses, thereby facilitating highly effective therapies.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          Genes Dis
          Genes Dis
          Genes & Diseases
          Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
          2352-4820
          2352-3042
          7 July 2020
          7 July 2020
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Biomedical sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
          [2 ]Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA
          [3 ]CityU Shenzhen Research Institute, Nanshan, Shenzhen, China
          Author notes
          []Corresponding author. mlhe7788@ 123456gmail.com
          Article
          S2352-3042(20)30083-0
          10.1016/j.gendis.2020.07.001
          7340039
          32837984
          6131268b-2b05-4e16-b952-21403f6e8687
          © 2020 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

          Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

          History
          : 30 May 2020
          : 23 June 2020
          : 2 July 2020
          Categories
          Article

          covid-19,coronavirus,sars-cov-2,cov,remdesivir,chloroquine,hydroxychloroquine,cq,hcq,ivermectin,convalescent plasma,convalescent plasma therapy,cp,natural killer cell therapy,nk

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