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      Bioregulatory systems medicine: an innovative approach to integrating the science of molecular networks, inflammation, and systems biology with the patient's autoregulatory capacity?


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          Bioregulatory systems medicine (BrSM) is a paradigm that aims to advance current medical practices. The basic scientific and clinical tenets of this approach embrace an interconnected picture of human health, supported largely by recent advances in systems biology and genomics, and focus on the implications of multi-scale interconnectivity for improving therapeutic approaches to disease. This article introduces the formal incorporation of these scientific and clinical elements into a cohesive theoretical model of the BrSM approach. The authors review this integrated body of knowledge and discuss how the emergent conceptual model offers the medical field a new avenue for extending the armamentarium of current treatment and healthcare, with the ultimate goal of improving population health.

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          Most cited references73

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          Modularity and community structure in networks

          M. Newman (2006)
          Many networks of interest in the sciences, including a variety of social and biological networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure has attracted considerable recent attention. One of the most sensitive detection methods is optimization of the quality function known as "modularity" over the possible divisions of a network, but direct application of this method using, for instance, simulated annealing is computationally costly. Here we show that the modularity can be reformulated in terms of the eigenvectors of a new characteristic matrix for the network, which we call the modularity matrix, and that this reformulation leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of better quality than competing methods in noticeably shorter running times. We demonstrate the algorithm with applications to several network data sets.
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            Points of control in inflammation.

            Inflammation is a complex set of interactions among soluble factors and cells that can arise in any tissue in response to traumatic, infectious, post-ischaemic, toxic or autoimmune injury. The process normally leads to recovery from infection and to healing, However, if targeted destruction and assisted repair are not properly phased, inflammation can lead to persistent tissue damage by leukocytes, lymphocytes or collagen. Inflammation may be considered in terms of its checkpoints, where binary or higher-order signals drive each commitment to escalate, go signals trigger stop signals, and molecules responsible for mediating the inflammatory response also suppress it, depending on timing and context. The non-inflammatory state does not arise passively from an absence of inflammatory stimuli; rather, maintenance of health requires the positive actions of specific gene products to suppress reactions to potentially inflammatory stimuli that do not warrant a full response.
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              Resolution of inflammation: state of the art, definitions and terms.

              A recent focus meeting on Controlling Acute Inflammation was held in London, April 27-28, 2006, organized by D.W. Gilroy and S.D. Brain for the British Pharmacology Society. We concluded at the meeting that a consensus report was needed that addresses the rapid progress in this emerging field and details how the specific study of resolution of acute inflammation provides leads for novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics, as well as defines the terms and key components of interest in the resolution process within tissues as appreciated today. The inflammatory response protects the body against infection and injury but can itself become dysregulated with deleterious consequences to the host. It is now evident that endogenous biochemical pathways activated during defense reactions can counter-regulate inflammation and promote resolution. Hence, resolution is an active rather than a passive process, as once believed, which now promises novel approaches for the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases based on endogenous agonists of resolution.

                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                19 August 2015
                : 6
                : 225
                [1] 1Concept Systems, Inc. Ithaca, NY, USA
                [2] 2Department of Sociology, Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA
                [3] 3Biologische Heilmittel Heel GmbH Baden-Baden, Germany
                [4] 4Transcend Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA
                [5] 5International Academy of Bioregulatory Medicine Baden-Baden, Germany
                [6] 6Division of Genomic Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center Washington, DC, USA
                [7] 7St. Laurent Institute Vancouver, WA, USA
                [8] 8Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Pierre De Meyts, De Meyts R&D Consulting, Belgium

                Reviewed by: Steven G. Gray, St James Hospital/Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; Julia Arciero, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA

                *Correspondence: Konstantin Cesnulevicius, Biologische Heilmittel Heel GmbH, Medical Affairs and Research, Dr.-Reckeweg-Straße 2-4, 76532 Baden-Baden, Germany konstantin.cesnulevicius@ 123456heel.com

                This article was submitted to Systems Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Copyright © 2015 Goldman, Burmeister, Cesnulevicius, Herbert, Kane, Lescheid, McCaffrey, Schultz, Seilheimer, Smit, St. Laurent and Berman.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 22 April 2015
                : 27 July 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 110, Pages: 17, Words: 13650
                Hypothesis and Theory

                Anatomy & Physiology
                bioregulatory systems medicine,systems biology,autoregulation,inflammation,systems medicine,genomics


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