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      Protective Effects of Relaxin against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

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          Background: Cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) involves pro-inflammatory responses, apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and vascular damage. AKI increases the risk of chronic kidney disease. Relaxin (RLX) has anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrosis properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RLX on CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: We investigated the mitigating effects of RLX based on the etiopathology of AKI induced by CDDP, and also the anti-fibrotic effect of RLX on renal fibrosis after AKI. In the short-term experiments, rats were divided into the control group, CDDP group, and CDDP+RLX group. In the latter group, RLX was infused for 5 or 14 days using an implanted osmotic minipump. CDDP was injected intraperitoneally (6 mg/kg) after RLX or saline infusion. At 5 and 14 days post-CDDP, the kidneys were removed for analysis. The effect of RLX on renal fibrosis after AKI was evaluated at 6 weeks post-CDDP. Results: In short-term experiments, CDDP transiently increased plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen with peaks at day 5, and RLX prevented such rises. Semiquantitative analysis of the histological lesions indicated marked structural damage and apoptotic cells in the CDDP group, with the lesions being reduced by RLX treatment. Overexpression of Bax, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α observed in the kidneys of the CDDP group was reduced in the CDDP+RLX group. In the long-term experiments, RLX significantly reduced renal fibrosis compared with the CDDP group. Conclusions: The results suggested that RLX provided protection against CDDP-induced AKI and subsequent fibrosis by reducing apoptosis and inflammation.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Cisplatin-induced acute renal failure is associated with an increase in the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-18, IL-6, and neutrophil infiltration in the kidney.

          We have demonstrated that caspase-1-deficient (caspase-1(-/-)) mice are functionally and histologically protected against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Caspase-1 exerts proinflammatory effects via the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-18, IL-6, and neutrophil recruitment. We sought to determine the role of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-18, and IL-6 and neutrophil recruitment in cisplatin-induced ARF. We first examined IL-1beta; renal IL-1beta increased nearly 2-fold in cisplatin-induced ARF and was reduced in the caspase-1(-/-) mice. However, inhibition with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) did not attenuate cisplatin-induced ARF. Renal IL-18 increased 2.5-fold; however, methods to inhibit IL-18 using IL-18 antiserum and transgenic mice that overproduce IL-18-binding protein (a natural inhibitor of IL-18) did not protect. Renal IL-6 increased 3-fold; however, IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice still developed cisplatin-induced ARF. We next examined neutrophils; blood neutrophils increased dramatically after cisplatin injection; however, prevention of peripheral neutrophilia and renal neutrophil infiltration with the neutrophil-depleting antibody RB6-8C5 did not protect against cisplatin-induced ARF. In summary, our data demonstrated that cisplatin-induced ARF is associated with increases in the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-18, and IL-6 and neutrophil infiltration in the kidney. However, inhibition of IL-1beta, IL-18, and IL-6 or neutrophil infiltration in the kidney is not sufficient to prevent cisplatin-induced ARF.
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            Platinum nephrotoxicity.

            Platinum coordination complexes have recently been introduced in cancer chemotherapy with considerable success. However, significant nephrotoxicity has emerged as a factor that limits the therapeutic usefulness of these compounds. In this article we review the available knowledge on platinum nephrotoxicity and its prevention that has been derived from both toxicologic studies in animals and clinical trials in human subjects.
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              Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats.

              The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                December 2014
                11 November 2014
                : 128
                : 1-2
                : 9-20
                aDepartment of Clinical Nutrition, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, and bDepartment of Applied Biological Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, and cDepartment of Medicine, Yaizu Municipal General Hospital, Yaizu, Japan
                Author notes
                *Naoki Ikegaya, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine, Yaizu Municipal General Hospital, 1000, Dohbara, Yaizu, Shizuoka 425-8505 (Japan), E-Mail ni100330@cy.tnc.ne.jp
                365852 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2014;128:9-20
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Apoptosis, Acute kidney injury, Renal fibrosis, Cisplatin, Relaxin


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