1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Recurrence after pituitary surgery in adult Cushing’s disease: a systematic review on diagnosis and treatment

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          Recurrence after pituitary surgery in Cushing’s disease (CD) is a common problem ranging from 5% (minimum) to 50% (maximum) after initially successful surgery, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the current literature regarding prevalence, diagnosis, and therapeutic options of recurrent CD.

          Methods

          We systematically screened the literature regarding recurrent and persistent Cushing’s disease using the MESH term Cushing’s disease and recurrence. Of 717 results in PubMed, all manuscripts in English and German published between 1980 and April 2020 were screened. Case reports, comments, publications focusing on pediatric CD or CD in veterinary disciplines or studies with very small sample size (patient number < 10) were excluded. Also, papers on CD in pregnancy were not included in this review.

          Results and conclusions

          Because of the high incidence of recurrence in CD, annual clinical and biochemical follow-up is paramount. 50% of recurrences occur during the first 50 months after first surgery. In case of recurrence, treatment options include second surgery, pituitary radiation, targeted medical therapy to control hypercortisolism, and bilateral adrenalectomy. Success rates of all these treatment options vary between 25 (some of the medical therapy) and 100% (bilateral adrenalectomy). All treatment options have specific advantages, limitations, and side effects. Therefore, treatment decisions have to be individualized according to the specific needs of the patient.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 121

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cushing's syndrome.

          Cushing's syndrome results from lengthy and inappropriate exposure to excessive glucocorticoids. Untreated, it has significant morbidity and mortality. The syndrome remains a challenge to diagnose and manage. Here, we review the current understanding of pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic, and differential diagnostic approaches. We provide diagnostic algorithms and recommendations for management.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The Treatment of Cushing's Disease.

            Cushing's disease (CD), or pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, is a severe endocrine disease caused by a corticotroph pituitary tumor and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The first-line treatment for CD is pituitary surgery, which is followed by disease remission in around 78% and relapse in around 13% of patients during the 10-year period after surgery, so that nearly one third of patients experience in the long-term a failure of surgery and require an additional second-line treatment. Patients with persistent or recurrent CD require additional treatments, including pituitary radiotherapy, adrenal surgery, and/or medical therapy. Pituitary radiotherapy is effective in controlling cortisol excess in a large percentage of patients, but it is associated with a considerable risk of hypopituitarism. Adrenal surgery is followed by a rapid and definitive control of cortisol excess in nearly all patients, but it induces adrenal insufficiency. Medical therapy has recently acquired a more important role compared to the past, due to the recent employment of novel compounds able to control cortisol secretion or action. Currently, medical therapy is used as a presurgical treatment, particularly for severe disease; or as postsurgical treatment, in cases of failure or incomplete surgical tumor resection; or as bridging therapy before, during, and after radiotherapy while waiting for disease control; or, in selected cases, as primary therapy, mainly when surgery is not an option. The adrenal-directed drug ketoconazole is the most commonly used drug, mainly because of its rapid action, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone, is highly effective in controlling clinical comorbidities, mainly glucose intolerance, thus being a useful treatment for CD when it is associated with diabetes mellitus. Pituitary-directed drugs have the advantage of acting at the site responsible for CD, the pituitary tumor. Among this group of drugs, the dopamine agonist cabergoline and the somatostatin analog pasireotide result in disease remission in a consistent subgroup of patients with CD. Recently, pasireotide has been approved for the treatment of CD when surgery has failed or when surgery is not an option, and mifepristone has been approved for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome when associated with impairment of glucose metabolism in case of the lack of a surgical indication. Recent experience suggests that the combination of different drugs may be able to control cortisol excess in a great majority of patients with CD.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors in the United States, 1996-2000: mortality, morbidity, and the effects of hospital and surgeon volume.

              Larger surgical caseload is associated with better patient outcome for many complex procedures. We examined the volume-outcome relationship for transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1996-2000. Multivariate regression adjusted for patient demographics, acuity measures, medical comorbidities, and endocrine status. A total of 5497 operations were performed at 538 hospitals by 825 surgeons. Outcome measured at hospital discharge was: death (0.6%), discharge to long-term care (0.9%), to short-term rehabilitation (2.1%), or directly home (96.2%). Outcomes were better after surgery at higher-volume hospitals (OR 0.74 for 5-fold-larger caseload, P = 0.007) or by higher-volume surgeons (OR 0.62, P = 0.02). A total of 5.4% of patients were not discharged directly home from lowest-volume-quartile hospitals, compared with 2.6% at highest-volume-quartile hospitals. In-hospital mortality was lower with higher-volume hospitals (P = 0.03) and surgeons (P = 0.09). Mortality rates were 0.9% at lowest-caseload-quartile hospitals and 0.4% at highest-volume-quartile hospitals. Postoperative complications (26.5% of admissions) were less frequent with higher-volume hospitals (P = 0.03) or surgeons (P = 0.005). Length of stay was shorter with high-volume hospitals (P = 0.02) and surgeons (P < 0.001). Hospital charges were lower for high-volume hospitals, but not significantly. This analysis suggests that higher-volume hospitals and surgeons provide superior short-term outcomes after transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery with shorter lengths of stay and a trend toward lower charges.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Martin.Reincke@med.uni-muenchen.de
                Journal
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Springer US (New York )
                1355-008X
                1559-0100
                2 August 2020
                2 August 2020
                : 1-14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411095.8, ISNI 0000 0004 0477 2585, Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, , Klinikum der Universität München, ; München, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.411095.8, ISNI 0000 0004 0477 2585, Klinik und Poliklinik für Radiologie, , Klinikum der Universität München, ; München, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.411095.8, ISNI 0000 0004 0477 2585, Klinik und Poliklinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, , Klinikum der Universität München, ; München, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.411544.1, ISNI 0000 0001 0196 8249, Department for Neurosurgery, , University Hospital Tübingen, ; 72076 Tübingen, Germany
                [5 ]GRID grid.411095.8, ISNI 0000 0004 0477 2585, Klinik für Allgemeine, Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Campus Innenstadt, , Klinikum der Universität München, ; München, Germany
                Article
                2432
                10.1007/s12020-020-02432-z
                7396205
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article