Flueggea acicularis ( Phyllanthaceae ) is endemic to the karst region of central China. Male specimens of this species were first collected in 1908. In 1989, female plants of F. acicularis were found for the first time, but misidentified as a new species. Throughout this period the male plants of F. acicularis were mismatched with female plants of other species, and male plants had not been collected since 1908. Then, in March, 2009, the authors rediscovered a wild population of F. acicularis consisting of both male and female plants in Wuxi county, Chongqing municipality, China. Based on field investigation and examination of specimens, we matched the correct female and male plants of this species for the first time since its initial publication a century ago. A complete and accurate morphological description, distribution, habitat and phenology of this species are also provided. Furthermore, the conservation status of F. acicularis is assessed as “Near Threatened” (NT) according to the IUCN Red List criteria.