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A retrospective study of surgically excised phaeochromocytomas in Newfoundland, Canada

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      Abstract

      Objective:

      A retrospective study detailing the circumstances surrounding diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas with the associated genetic disorders.

      Materials and Methods:

      All patients with surgically excised pheochromocytomas in the Health Sciences Center, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada between January 2001 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed to determine associated familial syndromes, age, tumor size, symptomatology, and percentage of paragangliomas and bilateral pheochromocytomas. Pathology specimen reports, adrenalectomy lists and Meditech (electronic medical record) diagnostic codes provided a comprehensive database for this study.

      Results:

      Twenty-four patients were studied; familial disorder patients comprised 42% (10/24). Average age at diagnosis was 57 among the sporadic and 34 in familial disorder groups ( P = 0.006). Average tumor size was 4.5 cm in the sporadic group and 3 cm in the familial disorder group ( P = 0.19). All atypical cases including bilateral or extra-adrenal tumors and malignancy occurred in familial disorder patients.

      Conclusions:

      The proportion of familial disorder patients (42%) was higher in this study than would be expected, likely a result of the relatively high incidence of hereditary autosomal dominant disorders within Newfoundland. Among familial disorder patients, the average younger age at diagnosis and the smaller tumor size suggest syndromic pheochromocytomas may develop earlier, however they are more likely to be diagnosed sooner due to biochemical surveillance testing in known genetic disorder patients. We also demonstrate a relatively high incidence of surgically resected pheochromocytomas of 4.679/million/year in Newfoundland.

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      Most cited references 20

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      Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma.

      The group of susceptibility genes for pheochromocytoma that included the proto-oncogene RET (associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 [MEN-2]) and the tumor-suppressor gene VHL (associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease) now also encompasses the newly identified genes for succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), which predispose carriers to pheochromocytomas and glomus tumors. We used molecular tools to classify a large cohort of patients with pheochromocytoma with respect to the presence or absence of mutations of one of these four genes and to investigate the relevance of genetic analyses to clinical practice. Peripheral blood from unrelated, consenting registry patients with pheochromocytoma was tested for mutations of RET, VHL, SDHD, and SDHB. Clinical data at first presentation and follow-up were evaluated. Among 271 patients who presented with nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma and without a family history of the disease, 66 (24 percent) were found to have mutations (mean age, 25 years; 32 men and 34 women). Of these 66, 30 had mutations of VHL, 13 of RET, 11 of SDHD, and 12 of SDHB. Younger age, multifocal tumors, and extraadrenal tumors were significantly associated with the presence of a mutation. However, among the 66 patients who were positive for mutations, only 21 had multifocal pheochromocytoma. Twenty-three (35 percent) presented after the age of 30 years, and 17 (8 percent) after the age of 40. Sixty-one (92 percent) of the patients with mutations were identified solely by molecular testing of VHL, RET, SDHD, and SDHB; these patients had no associated signs and symptoms at presentation. Almost one fourth of patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma may be carriers of mutations; routine analysis for mutations of RET, VHL, SDHD, and SDHB is indicated to identify pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes that would otherwise be missed.
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        Clinical and genetic characterization of pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau families: comparison with sporadic pheochromocytoma gives insight into natural history of pheochromocytoma.

        Families with von Hippel-Lindau disease have variable risk of pheochromocytoma. Patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease and pheochromocytoma identified by screening can have no characteristic signs or symptoms. Families with von Hippel-Lindau disease were screened and followed to describe the natural history of von Hippel-Lindau pheochromocytoma, and to correlate these findings with von Hippel-Lindau germline mutation. Between 1988 and 1997, 246 individuals with von Hippel-Lindau disease were identified (von Hippel-Lindau group). Between August 1990 and June 1997, 26 consecutive patients with sporadic pheochromocytoma were evaluated (sporadic group). A total of 64 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease had manifestations of pheochromocytoma, including 33 newly diagnosed during screening at the National Institutes of Health and 31 previously treated (93 adrenal and 13 extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas). Germline von Hippel-Lindau gene missense mutation was associated with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, younger age at presentation and the only patient with metastases. Of the 33 newly diagnosed patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease 4 had pheochromocytoma 2 times (37 pheochromocytomas) during followup. Of these pheochromocytomas 35% (13 of 37) were associated with no symptoms, normal blood pressure and normal catecholamine testing. Comparison of urinary catecholamines in the von Hippel-Lindau and sporadic groups demonstrated increased epinephrine, metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid in the sporadic group. Analysis of urinary catecholamine excretion in the von Hippel-Lindau and sporadic groups together demonstrated a correlation between tumor size, and urinary metanephrines, vanillylmandelic acid, norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. In 12 patients without signs or symptoms of pheochromocytoma 17 newly diagnosed pheochromocytomas were followed for a median of 34.5 months without morbidity. Median tumor doubling time was 17 months. Von Hippel-Lindau gene missense mutation correlated with the risk of pheochromocytoma in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. These findings support a von Hippel-Lindau disease clinical classification, wherein some families are at high risk for manifestations of pheochromocytoma. Von Hippel-Lindau disease pheochromocytomas identified by screening were smaller and less functional than sporadic pheochromocytomas.
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          Clinical review 164: The laboratory diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma: the Mayo Clinic experience.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Fellow, Endocrinology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
            [1 ] Assistant Professor, Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Health Sciences Center, St. John's, NL, Canada
            Author notes
            Corresponding Author: Dr. Vikram Chandurkar, Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Health Sciences Center, 300 Prince Philip Drive, St. John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada. E-mail: vikram@ 123456mun.ca
            Journal
            Indian J Endocrinol Metab
            Indian J Endocrinol Metab
            IJEM
            Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            2230-8210
            2230-9500
            Jul-Aug 2014
            : 18
            : 4
            : 542-545
            4138913
            IJEM-18-542
            10.4103/2230-8210.137514
            Copyright: © Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Original Article

            Endocrinology & Diabetes

            von hippel lindau, phaeochromocytoma, newfoundland, familial

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