Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), first synthetized in 1971; became soon available for clinical purposes and was immediately used as a diagnostic tool in children and adolescents as well as in adults. The first results of the LH-RH test in pediatrics were reported in 1972 and soon after discussed in meetings allowing comparison of the data from different groups. From this time, a great number of publications has been devoted to the diagnostic usefulness of LH-RH in the study of pubertal development and of pituitary-gonadal disorders in children and adolescents. Until recently, the therapeutic use of LH-RH has been restricted by the lack of availability of sufficient amounts, so that only few preliminary data have been reported in this field. Thus the scope of this review is mainly to present a critical survey of the data concerning LH-RH test in pediatric patients.