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      HAE Pathophysiology and Underlying Mechanisms.

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          Remarkable progress in understanding the pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms of hereditary angioedema has led to the development of effective treatment for this disorder. Progress in three separate areas has catalyzed our understanding of hereditary angioedema. The first is the recognition that HAE type I and type II result from a deficiency in the plasma level of functional C1 inhibitor. This observation has led to a detailed understanding of the SERPING1 mutations responsible for this deficiency as well as the molecular regulation of C1 inhibitor expression and function. The second is that the fundamental cause of swelling is enhanced contact system activation leading to increased generation of bradykinin. Substantial progress has been made in defining the parameters regulating bradykinin generation and catabolism as well as the receptors that transduce the biologic effects of kinins. The third is the understanding that tissue swelling in hereditary angioedema primarily involves the function of endothelial cell adherens junctions. This knowledge is driving increased attention to the role of endothelial biology in determining disease activity in hereditary angioedema. While there has been considerable progress made, large gaps still remain in our knowledge. Important areas that remain poorly understood include the factors that lead to very low plasma functional C1 inhibitor levels, the triggers of contact system activation in hereditary angioedema, and the role of the bradykinin B1 receptor. The phenotypic variability of hereditary angioedema has been extensively documented but never understood. The mechanisms discussed in this chapter likely contribute to this variability. Future progress in understanding these mechanisms should provide new means to improve the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema.

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          Author and article information

          Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
          Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology
          Springer Nature
          Oct 2016
          : 51
          : 2
          [1 ] Department of Medicine, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., Mail code 0732, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0732, USA.
          [2 ] San Diego Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.
          [3 ] Department of Medicine, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., Mail code 0732, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0732, USA.


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