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      Development and exploration of refractory high entropy alloys—A review

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Open literature publications, in the period from 2010 to the end of January 2018, on refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs) and refractory complex concentrated alloys (RCCAs) are reviewed. While RHEAs, by original definition, are alloys consisting of five or more principal elements with the concentration of each of these elements between 5 and 35 at.%, RCCAs can contain three or more principal elements and the element concentration can be greater than 35%. The 151 reported RHEAs/RCCAs are analyzed based on their composition, processing methods, microstructures, and phases. Mechanical properties, strengthening and deformation mechanisms, oxidation, and corrosion behavior, as well as tribology, of RHEA/RCCAs are summarized. Unique properties of some of these alloys make them promising candidates for high temperature applications beyond Ni-based superalloys and/or conventional refractory alloys. Methods of development and exploration, future directions of research and development, and potential applications of RHEAs are discussed.

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          A critical review of high entropy alloys and related concepts

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            Mechanical alloying and milling

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              Metastable high-entropy dual-phase alloys overcome the strength-ductility trade-off.

              Metals have been mankind's most essential materials for thousands of years; however, their use is affected by ecological and economical concerns. Alloys with higher strength and ductility could alleviate some of these concerns by reducing weight and improving energy efficiency. However, most metallurgical mechanisms for increasing strength lead to ductility loss, an effect referred to as the strength-ductility trade-off. Here we present a metastability-engineering strategy in which we design nanostructured, bulk high-entropy alloys with multiple compositionally equivalent high-entropy phases. High-entropy alloys were originally proposed to benefit from phase stabilization through entropy maximization. Yet here, motivated by recent work that relaxes the strict restrictions on high-entropy alloy compositions by demonstrating the weakness of this connection, the concept is overturned. We decrease phase stability to achieve two key benefits: interface hardening due to a dual-phase microstructure (resulting from reduced thermal stability of the high-temperature phase); and transformation-induced hardening (resulting from the reduced mechanical stability of the room-temperature phase). This combines the best of two worlds: extensive hardening due to the decreased phase stability known from advanced steels and massive solid-solution strengthening of high-entropy alloys. In our transformation-induced plasticity-assisted, dual-phase high-entropy alloy (TRIP-DP-HEA), these two contributions lead respectively to enhanced trans-grain and inter-grain slip resistance, and hence, increased strength. Moreover, the increased strain hardening capacity that is enabled by dislocation hardening of the stable phase and transformation-induced hardening of the metastable phase produces increased ductility. This combined increase in strength and ductility distinguishes the TRIP-DP-HEA alloy from other recently developed structural materials. This metastability-engineering strategy should thus usefully guide design in the near-infinite compositional space of high-entropy alloys.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Journal of Materials Research
                J. Mater. Res.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0884-2914
                2044-5326
                October 14 2018
                June 8 2018
                October 2018
                : 33
                : 19
                : 3092-3128
                Article
                10.1557/jmr.2018.153
                6162a096-b90f-46c1-ae5a-507933d6cb80
                © 2018

                https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms


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