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      Serious Consequences to the Use of Cephalosporins as the First Line of Antimicrobial Therapy Administered in Hemodialysis Units

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          Background: The dramatic spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among hemodialysis (HD) patients led to the replacement of vancomycin with cephalosporins as part of the primary empiric therapy for bacterial infections in HD units. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of this new regimen on the colonization rate of resistant bacteria among HD patients. Methods: Rectal swabs were taken from 105 HD patients and 91 control hospitalized patients. Groups were matched for age, sex, nursing home residency and background diseases. Enterococci were tested for vancomycin resistance, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were tested for methicillin resistance (MRSA), and Enterobacteriaceae were tested for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity. Results: In the HD group 1 VRE, 1 MRSA and 9 ESBL-producing organisms were isolated compared to 1 MRSA and 1 ESBL organism in the control group (p = 0.018 for ESBL). In the year prior to the study, the use of cephalosporins had been enhanced in the HD group compared to the control group (p < 0.001), and in the HD ESBL-positive patients compared to the HD ESBL-negative ones (p = 0.007). The overall use of antibiotics in the control group was the same as in the HD group. In a subanalysis of the HD group alone, the ESBL carriers were older, sicker, used more antibiotics, were hospitalized frequently and had a higher mortality rate, compared to noncarriers. Conclusions: The use of cephalosporins as first-line therapy in HD patients in central Israel reduced the prevalence of VRE colonization but may have contributed to the emergence of ESBL-producing organisms through induction of selection pressure. This may lead to serious complications in the management of these patients.

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          Most cited references 12

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          High rate of false-negative results of the rectal swab culture method in detection of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

          The diagnostic accuracy of the rectal swab (RS) culture method in identifying gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is not known. Serial quantitative stool cultures, skin cultures, and RS cultures were performed for patients with VRE infections to assess the false-negative rate of the RS and the prevalence of skin colonization, a prerequisite for cross-transmission, at varying VRE stool densities. A total of 35 stool samples were obtained from 13 patients. The sensitivity of the RS culture was 58%; it ranged from 100%, at VRE densities of > or =7.5 log10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of stool, to 0%, at densities of < or =4.5 log10 cfu per gram of stool. Skin colonization was detected at these low VRE stool densities, but it was more common at higher VRE densities (P<.001). Antibiotic exposure was significantly associated with higher VRE stool densities (P<.001). The high false-negative rate of the RS may be contributing to the continued increase in the prevalence of VRE.
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            Antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in Brooklyn, NY: epidemiology and relation to antibiotic usage patterns.

            In November 1997, all Enterobacteriaceae isolated at 15 hospitals in Brooklyn were collected. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were present in 44% of 409 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Six isolates had reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, including two that were not susceptible to any of the antibiotics tested. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a commonality of resistant isolates within and between hospitals. The occurrence of ESBLcontaining isolates was associated with cephalosporin usage (P = 0.055). ESBLs were present in 4.7% of Escherichia coli and 9.5% of Proteus mirabilis isolates. It is concluded that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic in Brooklyn, are spread between hospitals, and may be associated with cephalosporin usage.
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              Vancomycin-resistant enterococci among chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study of acquisition.

              To determine the prevalence and rate of acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among patients undergoing chronic (i.e., long-term) hemodialysis who were admitted to a tertiary care center, serial rectal cultures for VRE were performed at hospital admission and every 5 days until hospital discharge. A total of 7 (6%) of the 119 patients were colonized with VRE at admission. Six (19%) of the 32 patients who remained in the hospital > or =4 days acquired VRE. A nonambulatory status was significantly associated with colonization at admission (OR, 9.7; 95% CI, 1.8-53; P=.01), and vancomycin exposure was significantly associated with VRE acquisition (relative risk, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9; P=.02). All patients acquired VRE from epidemiologically linked dialysis patients colonized with similar VRE genotypes. Hospital acquisition of VRE contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of VRE in the chronic hemodialysis patient population.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                October 2005
                08 June 2005
                : 101
                : 2
                : c58-c64
                Departments of aMedicine ‘A’, bMicrobiology and cNephrology, Asaf-Harofe Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Zerifin, Israel
                86223 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c58–c64
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 5, References: 20, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86223
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