Aphasia after stroke is one of the common complications of cerebral infarction. Early diagnosis and treatment of aphasia after stroke is of great significance for the recovery of language function. At present, there are different views on the pathogenesis of aphasia after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can reflect the brain function, brain tissue metabolism, and the level of brain local blood flow. It has the advantages of noninvasive, high resolution and sensitivity, low price, and so on. It has been widely used in the study of sensory aphasia after stroke. This study focuses on the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with poststroke aphasia and summarizes the published studies on functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with poststroke aphasia. Evidence acquisition: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Hindawi, PLoS, IEEE, Wiley, ScienceDirect, Springer, EMBASE, and web of science, with the keywords of “stroke” and “Aphasia” and “functional magnetic resonance imaging”, “RS fMRI”, or “DTI”, to review the research of functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with aphasia after stroke. The results included clinical evaluation, diagnostic scale, and imaging analysis; the study design was a randomized controlled trial, case series and case report, and observational study. A total of 67 articles were identified in the first search and 43 after the second search. Based on the analysis of 43 selected articles, 19 articles were included, and 24 articles were excluded. The selected information is shown in Table 1. Eleven of them did not contain imaging-related data. Six articles are related review articles. Four studies were conducted on patients without poststroke aphasia. Three studies studied the effect of poststroke aphasia on patients' social participation.