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      First-degree atrioventricular block on basal electrocardiogram predicts future arrhythmic events in patients with Brugada syndrome: a long-term follow-up study from the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy

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          Most cited references 17

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          Long-term prognosis of patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome: Results from the FINGER Brugada Syndrome Registry.

          Brugada syndrome is characterized by ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fundamental questions remain on the best strategy for assessing the real disease-associated arrhythmic risk, especially in asymptomatic patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognosis and risk factors of SCD in Brugada syndrome patients in the FINGER (France, Italy, Netherlands, Germany) Brugada syndrome registry. Patients were recruited in 11 tertiary centers in 4 European countries. Inclusion criteria consisted of a type 1 ECG present either at baseline or after drug challenge, after exclusion of diseases that mimic Brugada syndrome. The registry included 1029 consecutive individuals (745 men; 72%) with a median age of 45 (35 to 55) years. Diagnosis was based on (1) aborted SCD (6%); (2) syncope, otherwise unexplained (30%); and (3) asymptomatic patients (64%). During a median follow-up of 31.9 (14 to 54.4) months, 51 cardiac events (5%) occurred (44 patients experienced appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, and 7 died suddenly). The cardiac event rate per year was 7.7% in patients with aborted SCD, 1.9% in patients with syncope, and 0.5% in asymptomatic patients. Symptoms and spontaneous type 1 ECG were predictors of arrhythmic events, whereas gender, familial history of SCD, inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias during electrophysiological study, and the presence of an SCN5A mutation were not predictive of arrhythmic events. In the largest series of Brugada syndrome patients thus far, event rates in asymptomatic patients were low. Inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and family history of SCD were not predictors of cardiac events.
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            Risk stratification in Brugada syndrome: results of the PRELUDE (PRogrammed ELectrical stimUlation preDictive valuE) registry.

            The PRELUDE (PRogrammed ELectrical stimUlation preDictive valuE) prospective registry was designed to assess the predictive accuracy of sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VTs/VF) inducibility and to identify additional predictors of arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome patients without history of VT/VF. Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Even though its value has been questioned, inducibility of VTs/VF is widely used to select candidates to receive a prophylactic implantable defibrillator, and its accuracy has never been addressed in prospective studies with homogeneous enrolling criteria. Patients with a spontaneous or drug-induced type I electrocardiogram (ECG) and without history of cardiac arrest were enrolled. The registry included 308 consecutive individuals (247 men, 80%; median age 44 years, range 18 to 72 years). Programmed electrical stimulation was performed at enrollment, and patients were followed-up every 6 months. During a median follow-up of 34 months, 14 arrhythmic events (4.5%) occurred (13 appropriate shocks of the implantable defibrillator, and 1 cardiac arrest). Programmed electrical stimulation performed with a uniform and pre-specified protocol induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 40% of patients: arrhythmia inducibility was not a predictor of events at follow-up (9 of 14 events occurred in noninducible patients). History of syncope and spontaneous type I ECG (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.20), ventricular refractory period <200 ms (HR: 3.91), and QRS fragmentation (HR: 4.94) were significant predictors of arrhythmias. Our data show that VT/VF inducibility is unable to identify high-risk patients, whereas the presence of a spontaneous type I ECG, history of syncope, ventricular effective refractory period <200 ms, and QRS fragmentation seem useful to identify candidates for prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Fragmented QRS as a marker of conduction abnormality and a predictor of prognosis of Brugada syndrome.

              Conduction abnormalities serve as a substrate for ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS). Signal-averaged electrograms can detect late potentials, but the significance of conduction abnormalities within the QRS complex is still unknown. The latter can present as multiple spikes within the QRS complex (fragmented QRS [f-QRS]). We hypothesized that f-QRS could indicate a substrate for VF and might predict a high risk of VF for patients with BS. In study 1, we analyzed the incidence of f-QRS in 115 patients with BS (13 resuscitated from VF, 28 with syncope, and 74 asymptomatic). f-QRS was observed in 43% of patients, more often in the VF group (incidence of f-QRS: VF 85%, syncope 50%, and asymptomatic 34%, P<0.01). SCN5A mutations occurred more often in patients with f-QRS (33%) than in patients without f-QRS (5%). In patients with syncope or VF, only 6% without f-QRS experienced VF during follow-up (43+/-25 months), but 58% of patients with f-QRS had recurrent syncope due to VF (P<0.01). In study 2, to investigate the mechanism of f-QRS, we studied in vitro models of BS in canine right ventricular tissues (n=4) and optically mapped multisite action potentials. In the experimental model of BS, ST elevation resulted from a large phase 1 notch of the action potential in the epicardium, and local epicardial activation delay reproduced f-QRS in the transmural ECG. f-QRS appears to be a marker for the substrate for spontaneous VF in BS and predicts patients at high risk of syncope.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EP Europace
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1099-5129
                1532-2092
                February 2019
                February 01 2019
                July 06 2018
                February 2019
                February 01 2019
                July 06 2018
                : 21
                : 2
                : 322-331
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua Medical School, Via Giustiniani, 2 – Padova, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Hosptital of Conegliano (TV), Via Brigata Bisagno, 4, Italy
                [3 ]Division of Cardiology, Hospital “P. Pederzoli”, Via Monte Baldo 24 – 37019 Peschiera Del Garda (VR), Italy
                Article
                10.1093/europace/euy144
                © 2018

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