+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Smoking and the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Conflicting evidence exists for observational studies on whether tobacco smoking is a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the development of DN.

          Materials and Methods

          We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from their inception to March 31 st, 2017 for cross-sectional, case-control, and prospective cohort studies. We screened reference lists of retrieved articles. Summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model.


          A total of nineteen observational studies (1 case-control, 8 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort studies) were identified, involving more than 78,000 participants and a total of 17,832 DN cases. Compared with never-smokers, there was an augmented SRR (95% CI) of DN in ever-smokers in patients with T1DM (1.31 [1.06–1.62]; P = 0.006) and T2DM (1.44 [1.24–1.67]; P < 0.001), respectively. In patients with T1DM, the SRR (95% CI) was 1.25 (0.86–1.83) for microalbuminuria only, 1.27 (1.10–1.48) for macroalbuminuria only, and 1.06 (0.97–1.15) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In patients with T2DM, the SRR (95% CI) associated with ever smoking was 1.46 (0.94–2.26) for microalbuminuria only, 1.72 (1.04–2.84) for macroalbuminuria only, and 1.10 (0.36–3.33) for ESRD.


          Our meta-analysis suggests evidence for cigarette smoking as an independent risk factor for the development of DN in patients with both T1DM and T2DM.

          Related collections

          Most cited references45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The epidemiology of obesity.

          In the United States, obesity among adults and overweight among children and adolescents have increased markedly since 1980. Among adults, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or greater. Among children and adolescents, overweight is defined as a body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile of a specified reference population. In 2003-2004, 32.9% of adults 20-74 years old were obese and more than 17% of teenagers (age, 12-19 y) were overweight. Obesity varies by age and sex, and by race-ethnic group among adult women. A higher body weight is associated with an increased incidence of a number of conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and with an increased risk of disability. Obesity is associated with a modestly increased risk of all-cause mortality. However, the net effect of overweight and obesity on morbidity and mortality is difficult to quantify. It is likely that a gene-environment interaction, in which genetically susceptible individuals respond to an environment with increased availability of palatable energy-dense foods and reduced opportunities for energy expenditure, contributes to the current high prevalence of obesity. Evidence suggests that even without reaching an ideal weight, a moderate amount of weight loss can be beneficial in terms of reducing levels of some risk factors, such as blood pressure. Many studies of dietary and behavioral treatments, however, have shown that maintenance of weight loss is difficult. The social and economic costs of obesity and of attempts to prevent or to treat obesity are high.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

            Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in patients starting renal replacement therapy and affects approximately 40% of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. It increases the risk of death, mainly from cardiovascular causes, and is defined by increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in the absence of other renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is categorized into stages: microalbuminuria (UAE >20 microg/min and or =200 microg/min). Hyperglycemia, increased blood pressure levels, and genetic predisposition are the main risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Elevated serum lipids, smoking habits, and the amount and origin of dietary protein also seem to play a role as risk factors. Screening for microalbuminuria should be performed yearly, starting 5 years after diagnosis in type 1 diabetes or earlier in the presence of puberty or poor metabolic control. In patients with type 2 diabetes, screening should be performed at diagnosis and yearly thereafter. Patients with micro- and macroalbuminuria should undergo an evaluation regarding the presence of comorbid associations, especially retinopathy and macrovascular disease. Achieving the best metabolic control (A1c 1.0 g/24 h and increased serum creatinine), using drugs with blockade effect on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and treating dyslipidemia (LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl) are effective strategies for preventing the development of microalbuminuria, in delaying the progression to more advanced stages of nephropathy and in reducing cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in a referred cohort of type II diabetic patients: a global perspective.

              We described the characteristics in a referred cohort of type II diabetic patients in the Developing Education on Microalbuminuria for Awareness of renal and cardiovascular risk in Diabetes study evaluating the global prevalence and determinants of microalbuminuria (MA). A cross-sectional study evaluating 32,208 type II diabetic patients without known albuminuria from 33 countries was performed. Overall, 8057 patients were excluded, either because of prior known proteinuria or non-diabetic nephropathy (3670), or because of invalid urine collections (4387). One single random urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was obtained in 24,151 patients (75%). The overall global prevalence of normo-, micro-, and macroalbuminuria was 51, 39, and 10%, respectively. The Asian and Hispanic patients had the highest prevalence of a raised urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (55%) and Caucasians the lowest (40.6), P<0.0001. HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (BP), ethnicity, retinopathy, duration of diabetes, kidney function, body height, and smoking were all independent risk factors of MA, P<0.0001. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was below 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in 22% of the 11,573 patients with available data. Systolic BP below 130 mmHg was found in 33 and 43% had an HbA1c below 7%. The frequency of patients receiving aspirin was 32%, statins 29%, and BP-lowering therapy 63%. A high prevalence globally of MA and reduced kidney function, both conditions associated with enhanced renal and cardiovascular risk, was detected in type II diabetic patients without prior known nephropathy. Early detection, monitoring of vascular complications, and more aggressive multifactorial treatment aiming at renal and vascular protection are urgently needed.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                3 November 2017
                4 October 2017
                : 8
                : 54
                : 93209-93218
                1 Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Maternal and Child Health Care of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory of Birth Regulation and Control Technology of National Health Family Planning Commission of China, Jinan, Shandong Province, China
                2 Department of Orthopedics, Shandong Provincial Hospital of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Jinan, Shandong Province, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Feng Huang, huangf0066@ 123456yeah.net
                Copyright: © 2017 Jiang et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

                : 5 May 2017
                : 21 September 2017

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                diabetic nephropathy,end stage renal disease,macroalbuminuria,microalbuminuria,cigarette smoking


                Comment on this article