8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Bacteremia and endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the potential role of daptomycin

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common disease with a high risk of mortality and complications. An increasing proportion of cases are methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), and methicillin-resistance is being observed from both community-acquired bacteremias and in healthcare-associated infections. The duration of bacteremia and transesophageal echocardiographic findings are useful in predicting the likelihood of complications including endocarditis. Therapy with vancomycin has been the mainstay in the treatment of MRSA bacteremias, but is associated with a long duration of bacteremia on therapy and relapses. Loss of susceptibility to vancomycin, due to thickened cell walls and through the acquisition of the vanA gene, has been described. Daptomycin is newly approved lipopeptide that is highly bactericidal against most strains of MRSA. In a randomized trial, daptomycin was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis. However treatment failures associated with isolates with daptomycin non-susceptibility are reported, and there is a correlation between isolates with reduced vancomycin susceptibility and reduced daptomycin susceptibility. Daptomycin is a useful alternative to vancomycin in the therapy of MRSA bacteremia and endocarditis. However the appropriate role of daptomycin in optimizing therapy with MRSA bacteremia and endocarditis remains to be elucidated.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 75

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department.

          Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA. We enrolled adult patients with acute, purulent skin and soft-tissue infections presenting to 11 university-affiliated emergency departments during the month of August 2004. Cultures were obtained, and clinical information was collected. Available S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of toxin genes. On MRSA isolates, we performed typing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), the genetic element that carries the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance. S. aureus was isolated from 320 of 422 patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (76 percent). The prevalence of MRSA was 59 percent overall and ranged from 15 to 74 percent. Pulsed-field type USA300 isolates accounted for 97 percent of MRSA isolates; 74 percent of these were a single strain (USA300-0114). SCCmec type IV and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin gene were detected in 98 percent of MRSA isolates. Other toxin genes were detected rarely. Among the MRSA isolates, 95 percent were susceptible to clindamycin, 6 percent to erythromycin, 60 percent to fluoroquinolones, 100 percent to rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 92 percent to tetracycline. Antibiotic therapy was not concordant with the results of susceptibility testing in 100 of 175 patients with MRSA infection who received antibiotics (57 percent). Among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, 31 percent were USA300 and 42 percent contained pvl genes. MRSA is the most common identifiable cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among patients presenting to emergency departments in 11 U.S. cities. When antimicrobial therapy is indicated for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections, clinicians should consider obtaining cultures and modifying empirical therapy to provide MRSA coverage. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis.

            A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a bibliographic review identified English-language studies of S. aureus bacteremia. Studies were included if they contained the numbers of and mortality rates for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics of the patients, adjustment for severity and comorbid illness, source of bacteremia, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for in-hospital mortality. When the results were pooled with a random-effects model, a significant increase in mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia was evident (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42; P<.001); significant heterogeneity was present. We explored the reasons for heterogeneity by means of subgroup analyses. MRSA bacteremia is associated with significantly higher mortality rate than is MSSA bacteremia.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: a consequence of medical progress.

              The global significance of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. To document the international emergence of health care-associated S aureus IE and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) IE and to evaluate regional variation in patients with S aureus IE. Prospective observational cohort study set in 39 medical centers in 16 countries. Participants were a population of 1779 patients with definite IE as defined by Duke criteria who were enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study from June 2000 to December 2003. In-hospital mortality. S aureus was the most common pathogen among the 1779 cases of definite IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective-Cohort Study (558 patients, 31.4%). Health care-associated infection was the most common form of S aureus IE (218 patients, 39.1%), accounting for 25.9% (Australia/New Zealand) to 54.2% (Brazil) of cases. Most patients with health care-associated S aureus IE (131 patients, 60.1%) acquired the infection outside of the hospital. MRSA IE was more common in the United States (37.2%) and Brazil (37.5%) than in Europe/Middle East (23.7%) and Australia/New Zealand (15.5%, P<.001). Persistent bacteremia was independently associated with MRSA IE (odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-13.2). Patients in the United States were most likely to be hemodialysis dependent, to have diabetes, to have a presumed intravascular device source, to receive vancomycin, to be infected with MRSA, and to have persistent bacteremia (P<.001 for all comparisons). S aureus is the leading cause of IE in many regions of the world. Characteristics of patients with S aureus IE vary significantly by region. Further studies are required to determine the causes of regional variation.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                August 2007
                August 2007
                : 3
                : 4
                : 675-684
                Affiliations
                University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine Kansas City, MO, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: David M Bamberger UMKC School of Medicine, 2411 Holmes St, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA Tel +1 816 235 1942 Fax +1 816 235 5538 Email bambergerd@ 123456umkc.edu
                Article
                2374935
                18472990
                © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, daptomycin, bacteremia, endocarditis

                Comments

                Comment on this article