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      Demonstration of resistance to satyrization behavior in Aedes aegypti from La Réunion island Translated title: Démonstration de la résistance au comportement de satyrisation chez Aedes aegypti de l’île de La Réunion

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          Abstract

          Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are competent vectors of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya viruses which co-exist in some areas, including La Réunion island, Indian Ocean. A type of reproductive interference called satyrization has been described in sympatric species where dominant species mating fails to produce hybrids and thus reduces the fitness and tends to control the spread of the other species. Here, we investigated satyrization in laboratory experiments to provide insights on the potential impact on Ae. aegypti of a control campaign including a sterile insect technique component against Ae. albopictus. Different mating crosses were used to test sympatric, conspecific-interspecific and allopatric effects of irradiated and non-irradiated male Ae. albopictus on female Ae. aegypti, including in a situation of skewed male ratio. Our results suggest that there was only a low level of satyrization between sympatric populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonized from La Réunion island. A male Ae. albopictus to female Ae. aegypti ratio of 3:1 did not increase the level of satyrization. Female Ae. aegypti previously mated to male Ae. albopictus were not prevented from being inseminated by conspecific males. A satyrization effect was not seen between allopatric Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from La Réunion Island either. The tested Ae. aegypti strain from La Réunion island has therefore developed full resistance to satyrization and so releasing sterile male Ae. albopictus may not suppress Ae. aegypti populations if an overflooding of irradiated male Ae. albopictus leads to similar results. The management strategy of two competent species in a sympatric area is discussed.

          Translated abstract

          Aedes aegypti et Aedes albopictus sont des vecteurs compétents d’arbovirus, tels que les virus de la dengue et du chikungunya, qui coexistent dans certaines régions, y compris à La Réunion, dans l’Océan Indien. Une interférence sur la reproduction appelée satyrisation a été décrite chez les espèces sympatriques où l’accouplement d’une espèce dominante ne produit pas d’hybrides et donc réduit le succès reproducteur et tend à contrôler la propagation des autres espèces. Ici, nous avons étudié la satyrisation dans des expériences de laboratoire pour fournir des informations sur l’impact potentiel sur Ae. aegypti d’une campagne de lutte contre Ae. albopictus basée sur la technique de l’insecte stérile. Différents croisements d’accouplements ont été utilisés pour tester les effets sympatriques, conspécifiques-interspécifiques et allopatriques de mâles Ae. albopictus irradiés et non irradiés sur les femelles Ae. aegypti, y compris dans une situation de ratio masculin asymétrique. Nos résultats suggèrent qu’il n’y avait qu’un faible niveau de satyrisation entre les populations sympatriques d’ Ae. aegypti et Ae. albopictus colonisées à La Réunion. Un rapport mâles Ae. albopictus sur femelles Ae. aegypti de 3 contre 1 n’a pas augmenté le niveau de satyrisation. Les femelles Ae. aegypti déjà accouplées à un mâle Ae. albopictus n’ont pas été empêchées d’être inséminées par des mâles conspécifiques. Aucun effet de satyrisation n’a été observé entre les souches allopatriques d’ Ae. albopictus et d’ Ae. aegypti de La Réunion. La souche testée d’ Ae. aegypti de La Réunion a donc développé une résistance totale à la satyrisation et en conséquence la libération de mâles stériles d’ Ae. albopictus peut ne pas supprimer les populations d’ Ae. aegypti si des lâchers massifs de mâles irradiés d’ Ae. albopictus conduisent à des résultats similaires. La stratégie de gestion de deux espèces compétentes dans une zone sympatrique est discutée.

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          Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

          Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, is currently the most invasive mosquito in the world. It is of medical importance due to its aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, and West Nile. Invasions into new areas of its potential range are often initiated through the transportation of eggs via the international trade in used tires. We use a genetic algorithm, Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP), to determine the ecological niche of Ae. albopictus and predict a global ecological risk map for the continued spread of the species. We combine this analysis with risk due to importation of tires from infested countries and their proximity to countries that have already been invaded to develop a list of countries most at risk for future introductions and establishments. Methods used here have potential for predicting risks of future invasions of vectors or pathogens.
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            Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

            Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.
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              Global Spread and Persistence of Dengue

              Dengue is a spectrum of disease caused by four serotypes of the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans today, and its incidence has increased dramatically in the past 50 years. Due in part to population growth and uncontrolled urbanization in tropical and subtropical countries, breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus have proliferated, and successful vector control has proven problematic. Dengue viruses have evolved rapidly as they have spread worldwide, and genotypes associated with increased virulence have expanded from South and Southeast Asia into the Pacific and the Americas. This review explores the human, mosquito, and viral factors that contribute to the global spread and persistence of dengue, as well as the interaction between the three spheres, in the context of ecological and climate changes. What is known, as well as gaps in knowledge, is emphasized in light of future prospects for control and prevention of this pandemic disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                07 April 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency PO Box 100 1400 Vienna Austria
                [2 ] Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé/Direction Régionale de l’Ouest 01 BP 545 Bobo 01 Bobo-Dioulasso Burkina Faso
                [3 ] Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Pembroke Place Liverpool L3 5QA United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite200024 10.1051/parasite/2020020
                10.1051/parasite/2020020
                7137539
                32254018
                © H. Maïga et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

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