Blog
About

4
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Cardiovascular Effects of Inhalational Anesthetics :

      International Anesthesiology Clinics

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 71

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Volatile anesthetics protect the ischemic rabbit myocardium from infarction.

          The influence of anesthetic agents on the infarction process in the ischemic myocardium is unclear. This study evaluated the effects of three intravenous and three inhalational anesthetic agents on myocardial infarction within a quantified ischemic risk zone in rabbit hearts subjected to a standardized regional ischemia-reperfusion insult. Both in vitro and in situ rabbit models were used to investigate the effects of anesthetic agents on infarct size. In all rabbits the heart was exposed and a coronary artery surrounded with a suture to form a snare for subsequent occlusion. In in situ preparations, both intravenous and inhalational agents were tested, whereas only the latter were used in isolated hearts. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. To determine whether an adenosine-mediated protective mechanism was involved, 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline, an adenosine receptor blocker, was added to halothane-treated isolated hearts. Adenosine concentration in the coronary effluent was also measured in isolated hearts exposed to halothane. In other protocols, chelerythrine, a highly selective protein kinase C inhibitor, was administered to both halothane-treated and untreated isolated hearts. Infarcts in the three in situ groups anesthetized with halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane were about one half as large as infarcts in rabbits that underwent anesthesia with pentobarbital, ketamine-xylazine, or propofol. Volatile anesthetics also protected isolated hearts by a similar amount. Both adenosine receptor blockade and chelerythrine abolished cardioprotection from halothane in isolated hearts. Halothane treatment did not increase adenosine release. The volatile anesthetics tested protected the ischemic rabbit heart from infarction, in contrast to the three intravenous agents tested. Protection was independent of the hypotensive effect of the inhalational agents because halothane also protected isolated hearts, in which changing vascular tone is not an issue and coronary perfusion pressure is constant. Cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics depended on both adenosine receptors and protein kinase C, and thus is similar to the mechanism of protection seen with ischemic preconditioning.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Ischemic preconditioning during coronary angioplasty is prevented by glibenclamide, a selective ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker.

            Brief episodes of ischemia render the heart more resistant to subsequent ischemia; this phenomenon has been called ischemic preconditioning. In some animal species, myocardial preconditioning appears to be due to activation of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. The role played by KATP channels in preconditioning in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether glibenclamide, a selective KATP channel blocker, abolishes the ischemic preconditioning observed in humans during coronary angioplasty following repeated balloon inflations. Twenty consecutive patients undergoing one-vessel coronary angioplasty were randomized to receive 10 mg oral glibenclamide or placebo. Sixty minutes after glibenclamide or placebo administration, patients were given an infusion of 10% dextrose (8 mL/min) to correct glucose plasma levels or, respectively, an infusion of saline at the same infusion rate. Thirty minutes after the beginning of the infusion, both patient groups underwent coronary angioplasty. The mean values (+/- 1 SD) of ST-segment shifts on the surface 12-lead ECG and the intracoronary ECG were measured at the end of the first and second balloon inflations, both 2 minutes long. In glibenclamide-treated patients, the mean ST-segment shift during the second balloon inflation was similar to that observed during the first inflation (23 +/- 13 versus 20 +/- 8 mm, P = NS), and the severity of cardiac pain was greater (55 +/- 21 versus 43 +/- 23 mm on a scale of 0 to 100, P < .05). Conversely, in placebo-treated patients the mean ST-segment shift during the second inflation was less than that during the first inflation (9 +/- 5 versus 23 +/- 13 mm, P < .001), as was the severity of cardiac pain (15 +/- 15 versus 42 +/- 19 mm, P < .01). Blood glucose levels were significantly reduced 60 minutes after glibenclamide compared with those at baseline (53 +/- 9 versus 102 +/- 10 mg/100 mL, P < .001) in the glibenclamide group; however, before coronary angioplasty, blood glucose levels increased to 95 +/- 19 mg/100 mL, a value similar to that found in placebo group (96 +/- 11 mg/100 mL, P = NS). In humans, ischemic preconditioning during brief repeated coronary occlusions is completely abolished by pretreatment with glibenclamide, thus suggesting that it is mainly mediated by KATP channels.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Xenon administration during early reperfusion reduces infarct size after regional ischemia in the rabbit heart in vivo.

              The noble gas xenon can be used as an anesthetic gas with many of the properties of the ideal anesthetic. Other volatile anesthetics protect myocardial tissue against reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of xenon on reperfusion injury after regional myocardial ischemia in the rabbit. Chloralose-anesthetized rabbits were instrumented for measurement of aortic pressure, left ventricular pressure, and cardiac output. Twenty-eight rabbits were subjected to 30 min of occlusion of a major coronary artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. During the first 15 min of reperfusion, 14 rabbits inhaled 70% xenon/30% oxygen (Xenon), and 14 rabbits inhaled air containing 30% oxygen (Control). Infarct size was determined at the end of the reperfusion period by using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Xenon reduced infarct size from 51%+/-3% of the area at risk in controls to 39%+/-5% (P<0.05). Infarct size in relation to the area at risk size was smaller in the xenon-treated animals, indicated by a reduced slope of the regression line relating infarct size to the area at risk size (Control: 0.70+/-0.08, r = 0.93; Xenon: 0.19+/-0.09, r = 0.49, P<0.001). In conclusion, inhaled xenon during early reperfusion reduced infarct size after regional ischemia in the rabbit heart in vivo.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Anesthesiology Clinics
                International Anesthesiology Clinics
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0020-5907
                2002
                24 2002
                : 40
                : 1
                : 1-14
                10.1097/00004311-200201000-00003
                © 2002

                Comments

                Comment on this article