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AKT phosphorylates H3-threonine 45 to facilitate termination of gene transcription in response to DNA damage

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      Abstract

      Post-translational modifications of core histones affect various cellular processes, primarily through transcription. However, their relationship with the termination of transcription has remained largely unknown. In this study, we show that DNA damage-activated AKT phosphorylates threonine 45 of core histone H3 (H3-T45). By genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis, H3-T45 phosphorylation was distributed throughout DNA damage-responsive gene loci, particularly immediately after the transcription termination site. H3-T45 phosphorylation pattern showed close-resemblance to that of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) serine 2 phosphorylation, which establishes the transcription termination signal. AKT1 was more effective than AKT2 in phosphorylating H3-T45. Blocking H3-T45 phosphorylation by inhibiting AKT or through amino acid substitution limited RNA decay downstream of mRNA cleavage sites and decreased RNA polymerase II release from chromatin. Our findings suggest that AKT-mediated phosphorylation of H3-T45 regulates the processing of the 3′ end of DNA damage-activated genes to facilitate transcriptional termination.

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      Ultrafast and memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome

      Rationale Improvements in the efficiency of DNA sequencing have both broadened the applications for sequencing and dramatically increased the size of sequencing datasets. Technologies from Illumina (San Diego, CA, USA) and Applied Biosystems (Foster City, CA, USA) have been used to profile methylation patterns (MeDIP-Seq) [1], to map DNA-protein interactions (ChIP-Seq) [2], and to identify differentially expressed genes (RNA-Seq) [3] in the human genome and other species. The Illumina instrument was recently used to re-sequence three human genomes, one from a cancer patient and two from previously unsequenced ethnic groups [4-6]. Each of these studies required the alignment of large numbers of short DNA sequences ('short reads') onto the human genome. For example, two of the studies [4,5] used the short read alignment tool Maq [7] to align more than 130 billion bases (about 45× coverage) of short Illumina reads to a human reference genome in order to detect genetic variations. The third human re-sequencing study [6] used the SOAP program [8] to align more than 100 billion bases to the reference genome. In addition to these projects, the 1,000 Genomes project is in the process of using high-throughput sequencing instruments to sequence a total of about six trillion base pairs of human DNA [9]. With existing methods, the computational cost of aligning many short reads to a mammalian genome is very large. For example, extrapolating from the results presented here in Tables 1 and 2, one can see that Maq would require more than 5 central processing unit (CPU)-months and SOAP more than 3 CPU-years to align the 140 billion bases from the study by Ley and coworkers [5]. Although using Maq or SOAP for this purpose has been shown to be feasible by using multiple CPUs, there is a clear need for new tools that consume less time and computational resources. Table 1 Bowtie alignment performance versus SOAP and Maq Platform CPU time Wall clock time Reads mapped per hour (millions) Peak virtual memory footprint (megabytes) Bowtie speed-up Reads aligned (%) Bowtie -v 2 Server 15 m 7 s 15 m 41 s 33.8 1,149 - 67.4 SOAP 91 h 57 m 35 s 91 h 47 m 46 s 0.10 13,619 351× 67.3 Bowtie PC 16 m 41 s 17 m 57 s 29.5 1,353 - 71.9 Maq 17 h 46 m 35 s 17 h 53 m 7 s 0.49 804 59.8× 74.7 Bowtie Server 17 m 58 s 18 m 26 s 28.8 1,353 - 71.9 Maq 32 h 56 m 53 s 32 h 58 m 39 s 0.27 804 107× 74.7 The performance and sensitivity of Bowtie v0.9.6, SOAP v1.10, and Maq v0.6.6 when aligning 8.84 M reads from the 1,000 Genome project (National Center for Biotechnology Information Short Read Archive: SRR001115) trimmed to 35 base pairs. The 'soap.contig' version of the SOAP binary was used. SOAP could not be run on the PC because SOAP's memory footprint exceeds the PC's physical memory. For the SOAP comparison, Bowtie was invoked with '-v 2' to mimic SOAP's default matching policy (which allows up to two mismatches in the alignment and disregards quality values). For the Maq comparison Bowtie is run with its default policy, which mimics Maq's default policy of allowing up to two mismatches during the first 28 bases and enforcing an overall limit of 70 on the sum of the quality values at all mismatched positions. To make Bowtie's memory footprint more comparable to Maq's, Bowtie is invoked with the '-z' option in all experiments to ensure only the forward or mirror index is resident in memory at one time. CPU, central processing unit. Table 2 Bowtie alignment performance versus Maq with filtered read set Platform CPU time Wall clock time Reads mapped per hour (millions) Peak virtual memory footprint (megabytes) Bowtie speed up Reads aligned (%) Bowtie PC 16 m 39 s 17 m 47 s 29.8 1,353 - 74.9 Maq 11 h 15 m 58 s 11 h 22 m 2 s 0.78 804 38.4× 78.0 Bowtie Server 18 m 20 s 18 m 46 s 28.3 1,352 - 74.9 Maq 18 h 49 m 7 s 18 h 50 m 16 s 0.47 804 60.2× 78.0 Performance and sensitivity of Bowtie v0.9.6 and Maq v0.6.6 when the read set is filtered using Maq's 'catfilter' command to eliminate poly-A artifacts. The filter eliminates 438,145 out of 8,839,010 reads. Other experimental parameters are identical to those of the experiments in Table 1. CPU, central processing unit. Maq and SOAP take the same basic algorithmic approach as other recent read mapping tools such as RMAP [10], ZOOM [11], and SHRiMP [12]. Each tool builds a hash table of short oligomers present in either the reads (SHRiMP, Maq, RMAP, and ZOOM) or the reference (SOAP). Some employ recent theoretical advances to align reads quickly without sacrificing sensitivity. For example, ZOOM uses 'spaced seeds' to significantly outperform RMAP, which is based on a simpler algorithm developed by Baeza-Yaetes and Perleberg [13]. Spaced seeds have been shown to yield higher sensitivity than contiguous seeds of the same length [14,15]. SHRiMP employs a combination of spaced seeds and the Smith-Waterman [16] algorithm to align reads with high sensitivity at the expense of speed. Eland is a commercial alignment program available from Illumina that uses a hash-based algorithm to align reads. Bowtie uses a different and novel indexing strategy to create an ultrafast, memory-efficient short read aligner geared toward mammalian re-sequencing. In our experiments using reads from the 1,000 Genomes project, Bowtie aligns 35-base pair (bp) reads at a rate of more than 25 million reads per CPU-hour, which is more than 35 times faster than Maq and 300 times faster than SOAP under the same conditions (see Tables 1 and 2). Bowtie employs a Burrows-Wheeler index based on the full-text minute-space (FM) index, which has a memory footprint of only about 1.3 gigabytes (GB) for the human genome. The small footprint allows Bowtie to run on a typical desktop computer with 2 GB of RAM. The index is small enough to be distributed over the internet and to be stored on disk and re-used. Multiple processor cores can be used simultaneously to achieve even greater alignment speed. We have used Bowtie to align 14.3× coverage worth of human Illumina reads from the 1,000 Genomes project in about 14 hours on a single desktop computer with four processor cores. Bowtie makes a number of compromises to achieve this speed, but these trade-offs are reasonable within the context of mammalian re-sequencing projects. If one or more exact matches exist for a read, then Bowtie is guaranteed to report one, but if the best match is an inexact one then Bowtie is not guaranteed in all cases to find the highest quality alignment. With its highest performance settings, Bowtie may fail to align a small number of reads with valid alignments, if those reads have multiple mismatches. If the stronger guarantees are desired, Bowtie supports options that increase accuracy at the cost of some performance. For instance, the '--best' option will guarantee that all alignments reported are best in terms of minimizing mismatches in the seed portion of the read, although this option incurs additional computational cost. With its default options, Bowtie's sensitivity measured in terms of reads aligned is equal to SOAP's and somewhat less than Maq's. Command line options allow the user to increase sensitivity at the cost of greater running time, and to enable Bowtie to report multiple hits for a read. Bowtie can align reads as short as four bases and as long as 1,024 bases. The input to a single run of Bowtie may comprise a mixture of reads with different lengths. Bowtie description and results Bowtie indexes the reference genome using a scheme based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) [17] and the FM index [18,19]. A Bowtie index for the human genome fits in 2.2 GB on disk and has a memory footprint of as little as 1.3 GB at alignment time, allowing it to be queried on a workstation with under 2 GB of RAM. The common method for searching in an FM index is the exact-matching algorithm of Ferragina and Manzini [18]. Bowtie does not simply adopt this algorithm because exact matching does not allow for sequencing errors or genetic variations. We introduce two novel extensions that make the technique applicable to short read alignment: a quality-aware backtracking algorithm that allows mismatches and favors high-quality alignments; and 'double indexing', a strategy to avoid excessive backtracking. The Bowtie aligner follows a policy similar to Maq's, in that it allows a small number of mismatches within the high-quality end of each read, and it places an upper limit on the sum of the quality values at mismatched alignment positions. Burrows-Wheeler indexing The BWT is a reversible permutation of the characters in a text. Although originally developed within the context of data compression, BWT-based indexing allows large texts to be searched efficiently in a small memory footprint. It has been applied to bioinformatics applications, including oligomer counting [20], whole-genome alignment [21], tiling microarray probe design [22], and Smith-Waterman alignment to a human-sized reference [23]. The Burrows-Wheeler transformation of a text T, BWT(T), is constructed as follows. The character $ is appended to T, where $ is not in T and is lexicographically less than all characters in T. The Burrows-Wheeler matrix of T is constructed as the matrix whose rows comprise all cyclic rotations of T$. The rows are then sorted lexicographically. BWT(T) is the sequence of characters in the rightmost column of the Burrows-Wheeler matrix (Figure 1a). BWT(T) has the same length as the original text T. Figure 1 Burrows-Wheeler transform. (a) The Burrows-Wheeler matrix and transformation for 'acaacg'. (b) Steps taken by EXACTMATCH to identify the range of rows, and thus the set of reference suffixes, prefixed by 'aac'. (c) UNPERMUTE repeatedly applies the last first (LF) mapping to recover the original text (in red on the top line) from the Burrows-Wheeler transform (in black in the rightmost column). This matrix has a property called 'last first (LF) mapping'. The ith occurrence of character X in the last column corresponds to the same text character as the ith occurrence of X in the first column. This property underlies algorithms that use the BWT index to navigate or search the text. Figure 1b illustrates UNPERMUTE, an algorithm that applies the LF mapping repeatedly to re-create T from BWT(T). The LF mapping is also used in exact matching. Because the matrix is sorted lexicographically, rows beginning with a given sequence appear consecutively. In a series of steps, the EXACTMATCH algorithm (Figure 1c) calculates the range of matrix rows beginning with successively longer suffixes of the query. At each step, the size of the range either shrinks or remains the same. When the algorithm completes, rows beginning with S0 (the entire query) correspond to exact occurrences of the query in the text. If the range is empty, the text does not contain the query. UNPERMUTE is attributable to Burrows and Wheeler [17] and EXACTMATCH to Ferragina and Manzini [18]. See Additional data file 1 (Supplementary Discussion 1) for details. Searching for inexact alignments EXACTMATCH is insufficient for short read alignment because alignments may contain mismatches, which may be due to sequencing errors, genuine differences between reference and query organisms, or both. We introduce an alignment algorithm that conducts a backtracking search to quickly find alignments that satisfy a specified alignment policy. Each character in a read has a numeric quality value, with lower values indicating a higher likelihood of a sequencing error. Our alignment policy allows a limited number of mismatches and prefers alignments where the sum of the quality values at all mismatched positions is low. The search proceeds similarly to EXACTMATCH, calculating matrix ranges for successively longer query suffixes. If the range becomes empty (a suffix does not occur in the text), then the algorithm may select an already-matched query position and substitute a different base there, introducing a mismatch into the alignment. The EXACTMATCH search resumes from just after the substituted position. The algorithm selects only those substitutions that are consistent with the alignment policy and which yield a modified suffix that occurs at least once in the text. If there are multiple candidate substitution positions, then the algorithm greedily selects a position with a minimal quality value. Backtracking scenarios play out within the context of a stack structure that grows when a new substitution is introduced and shrinks when the aligner rejects all candidate alignments for the substitutions currently on the stack. See Figure 2 for an illustration of how the search might proceed. Figure 2 Exact matching versus inexact alignment. Illustration of how EXACTMATCH (top) and Bowtie's aligner (bottom) proceed when there is no exact match for query 'ggta' but there is a one-mismatch alignment when 'a' is replaced by 'g'. Boxed pairs of numbers denote ranges of matrix rows beginning with the suffix observed up to that point. A red X marks where the algorithm encounters an empty range and either aborts (as in EXACTMATCH) or backtracks (as in the inexact algorithm). A green check marks where the algorithm finds a nonempty range delimiting one or more occurrences of a reportable alignment for the query. In short, Bowtie conducts a quality-aware, greedy, randomized, depth-first search through the space of possible alignments. If a valid alignment exists, then Bowtie will find it (subject to the backtrack ceiling discussed in the following section). Because the search is greedy, the first valid alignment encountered by Bowtie will not necessarily be the 'best' in terms of number of mismatches or in terms of quality. The user may instruct Bowtie to continue searching until it can prove that any alignment it reports is 'best' in terms of number of mismatches (using the option --best). In our experience, this mode is two to three times slower than the default mode. We expect that the faster default mode will be preferred for large re-sequencing projects. The user may also opt for Bowtie to report all alignments up to a specified number (option -k) or all alignments with no limit on the number (option -a) for a given read. If in the course of its search Bowtie finds N possible alignments for a given set of substitutions, but the user has requested only K alignments where K < N, Bowtie will report K of the N alignments selected at random. Note that these modes can be much slower than the default. In our experience, for example, -k 1 is more than twice as fast as -k 2. Excessive backtracking The aligner as described so far can, in some cases, encounter sequences that cause excessive backtracking. This occurs when the aligner spends most of its effort fruitlessly backtracking to positions close to the 3' end of the query. Bowtie mitigates excessive backtracking with the novel technique of 'double indexing'. Two indices of the genome are created: one containing the BWT of the genome, called the 'forward' index, and a second containing the BWT of the genome with its character sequence reversed (not reverse complemented) called the 'mirror' index. To see how this helps, consider a matching policy that allows one mismatch in the alignment. A valid alignment with one mismatch falls into one of two cases according to which half of the read contains the mismatch. Bowtie proceeds in two phases corresponding to those two cases. Phase 1 loads the forward index into memory and invokes the aligner with the constraint that it may not substitute at positions in the query's right half. Phase 2 uses the mirror index and invokes the aligner on the reversed query, with the constraint that the aligner may not substitute at positions in the reversed query's right half (the original query's left half). The constraints on backtracking into the right half prevent excessive backtracking, whereas the use of two phases and two indices maintains full sensitivity. Unfortunately, it is not possible to avoid excessive backtracking fully when alignments are permitted to have two or more mismatches. In our experiments, we have observed that excessive backtracking is significant only when a read has many low-quality positions and does not align or aligns poorly to the reference. These cases can trigger in excess of 200 backtracks per read because there are many legal combinations of low-quality positions to be explored before all possibilities are exhausted. We mitigate this cost by enforcing a limit on the number of backtracks allowed before a search is terminated (default: 125). The limit prevents some legitimate, low-quality alignments from being reported, but we expect that this is a desirable trade-off for most applications. Phased Maq-like search Bowtie allows the user to select the number of mismatches permitted (default: two) in the high-quality end of a read (default: the first 28 bases) as well as the maximum acceptable quality distance of the overall alignment (default: 70). Quality values are assumed to follow the definition in PHRED [24], where p is the probability of error and Q = -10log p. Both the read and its reverse complement are candidates for alignment to the reference. For clarity, this discussion considers only the forward orientation. See Additional data file 1 (Supplementary Discussion 2) for an explanation of how the reverse complement is incorporated. The first 28 bases on the high-quality end of the read are termed the 'seed'. The seed consists of two halves: the 14 bp on the high-quality end (usually the 5' end) and the 14 bp on the low-quality end, termed the 'hi-half' and the 'lo-half', respectively. Assuming the default policy (two mismatches permitted in the seed), a reportable alignment will fall into one of four cases: no mismatches in seed (case 1); no mismatches in hi-half, one or two mismatches in lo-half (case 2); no mismatches in lo-half, one or two mismatches in hi-half (case 3); and one mismatch in hi-half, one mismatch in lo-half (case 4). All cases allow any number of mismatches in the nonseed part of the read and all cases are also subject to the quality distance constraint. The Bowtie algorithm consists of three phases that alternate between using the forward and mirror indices, as illustrated in Figure 3. Phase 1 uses the mirror index and invokes the aligner to find alignments for cases 1 and 2. Phases 2 and 3 cooperate to find alignments for case 3: Phase 2 finds partial alignments with mismatches only in the hi-half and phase 3 attempts to extend those partial alignments into full alignments. Finally, phase 3 invokes the aligner to find alignments for case 4. Figure 3 The three phases of the Bowtie algorithm for the Maq-like policy. A three-phase approach finds alignments for two-mismatch cases 1 to 4 while minimizing backtracking. Phase 1 uses the mirror index and invokes the aligner to find alignments for cases 1 and 2. Phases 2 and 3 cooperate to find alignments for case 3: Phase 2 finds partial alignments with mismatches only in the hi-half, and phase 3 attempts to extend those partial alignments into full alignments. Finally, phase 3 invokes the aligner to find alignments for case 4. Performance results We evaluated the performance of Bowtie using reads from the 1,000 Genomes project pilot (National Center for Biotechnology Information [NCBI] Short Read Archive:SRR001115). A total of 8.84 million reads, about one lane of data from an Illumina instrument, were trimmed to 35 bp and aligned to the human reference genome [NCBI build 36.3]. Unless specified otherwise, read data are not filtered or modified (besides trimming) from how they appear in the archive. This leads to about 70% to 75% of reads aligning somewhere to the genome. In our experience, this is typical for raw data from the archive. More aggressive filtering leads to higher alignment rates and faster alignment. All runs were performed on a single CPU. Bowtie speedups were calculated as a ratio of wall-clock alignment times. Both wall-clock and CPU times are given to demonstrate that input/output load and CPU contention are not significant factors. The time required to build the Bowtie index was not included in the Bowtie running times. Unlike competing tools, Bowtie can reuse a pre-computed index for the reference genome across many alignment runs. We anticipate most users will simply download such indices from a public repository. The Bowtie site [25] provides indices for current builds of the human, chimp, mouse, dog, rat, and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes, as well as many others. Results were obtained on two hardware platforms: a desktop workstation with 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 processor and 2 GB of RAM; and a large-memory server with a four-core 2.4 GHz AMD Opteron processor and 32 GB of RAM. These are denoted 'PC' and 'server', respectively. Both PC and server run Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS release 4. Comparison to SOAP and Maq Maq is a popular aligner [1,4,5,26,27] that is among the fastest competing open source tools for aligning millions of Illumina reads to the human genome. SOAP is another open source tool that has been reported and used in short-read projects [6,28]. Table 1 presents the performance and sensitivity of Bowtie v0.9.6, SOAP v1.10, and Maq v0.6.6. SOAP could not be run on the PC because SOAP's memory footprint exceeds the PC's physical memory. The 'soap.contig' version of the SOAP binary was used. For comparison with SOAP, Bowtie was invoked with '-v 2' to mimic SOAP's default matching policy (which allows up to two mismatches in the alignment and disregards quality values), and with '--maxns 5' to simulate SOAP's default policy of filtering out reads with five or more no-confidence bases. For the Maq comparison Bowtie is run with its default policy, which mimics Maq's default policy of allowing up to two mismatches in the first 28 bases and enforcing an overall limit of 70 on the sum of the quality values at all mismatched read positions. To make Bowtie's memory footprint more comparable to Maq's, Bowtie is invoked with the '-z' option in all experiments to ensure that only the forward or mirror index is resident in memory at one time. The number of reads aligned indicates that SOAP (67.3%) and Bowtie -v 2 (67.4%) have comparable sensitivity. Of the reads aligned by either SOAP or Bowtie, 99.7% were aligned by both, 0.2% were aligned by Bowtie but not SOAP, and 0.1% were aligned by SOAP but not Bowtie. Maq (74.7%) and Bowtie (71.9%) also have roughly comparable sensitivity, although Bowtie lags by 2.8%. Of the reads aligned by either Maq or Bowtie, 96.0% were aligned by both, 0.1% were aligned by Bowtie but not Maq, and 3.9% were aligned by Maq but not Bowtie. Of the reads mapped by Maq but not Bowtie, almost all are due to a flexibility in Maq's alignment algorithm that allows some alignments to have three mismatches in the seed. The remainder of the reads mapped by Maq but not Bowtie are due to Bowtie's backtracking ceiling. Maq's documentation mentions that reads containing 'poly-A artifacts' can impair Maq's performance. Table 2 presents performance and sensitivity of Bowtie and Maq when the read set is filtered using Maq's 'catfilter' command to eliminate poly-A artifacts. The filter eliminates 438,145 out of 8,839,010 reads. Other experimental parameters are identical to those of the experiments in Table 1, and the same observations about the relative sensitivity of Bowtie and Maq apply here. Read length and performance As sequencing technology improves, read lengths are growing beyond the 30-bp to 50-bp commonly seen in public databases today. Bowtie, Maq, and SOAP support reads of lengths up to 1,024, 63, and 60 bp, respectively, and Maq versions 0.7.0 and later support read lengths up to 127 bp. Table 3 shows performance results when the three tools are each used to align three sets of 2 M untrimmed reads, a 36-bp set, a 50-bp set and a 76-bp set, to the human genome on the server platform. Each set of 2 M is randomly sampled from a larger set (NCBI Short Read Archive: SRR003084 for 36-bp, SRR003092 for 50-bp, SRR003196 for 76-bp). Reads were sampled such that the three sets of 2 M have uniform per-base error rate, as calculated from per-base Phred qualities. All reads pass through Maq's 'catfilter'. Table 3 Varying read length using Bowtie, Maq and SOAP Length Program CPU time Wall clock time Peak virtual memory footprint (megabytes) Bowtie speed-up Reads aligned (%) 36 bp Bowtie 6 m 15 s 6 m 21 s 1,305 - 62.2 Maq 3 h 52 m 26 s 3 h 52 m 54 s 804 36.7× 65.0 Bowtie -v 2 4 m 55 s 5 m 00 s 1,138 - 55.0 SOAP 16 h 44 m 3 s 18 h 1 m 38 s 13,619 216× 55.1 50 bp Bowtie 7 m 11 s 7 m 20 s 1,310 - 67.5 Maq 2 h 39 m 56 s 2 h 40 m 9 s 804 21.8× 67.9 Bowtie -v 2 5 m 32 s 5 m 46 s 1,138 - 56.2 SOAP 48 h 42 m 4 s 66 h 26 m 53 s 13,619 691× 56.2 76 bp Bowtie 18 m 58 s 19 m 6 s 1,323 - 44.5 Maq 0.7.1 4 h 45 m 7 s 4 h 45 m 17 s 1,155 14.9× 44.9 Bowtie -v 2 7 m 35 s 7 m 40 s 1,138 - 31.7 The performance of Bowtie v0.9.6, SOAP v1.10, and Maq versions v0.6.6 and v0.7.1 on the server platform when aligning 2 M untrimmed reads from the 1,000 Genome project (National Center for Biotechnology Information Short Read Archive: SRR003084 for 36 base pairs [bp], SRR003092 for 50 bp, and SRR003196 for 76 bp). For each read length, the 2 M reads were randomly sampled from the FASTQ file downloaded from the Archive such that the average per-base error rate as measured by quality values was uniform across the three sets. All reads pass through Maq's "catfilter". Maq v0.7.1 was used for the 76-bp reads because v0.6.6 does not support reads longer than 63 bp. SOAP is excluded from the 76-bp experiment because it does not support reads longer than 60 bp. Other experimental parameters are identical to those of the experiments in Table 1. CPU, central processing unit. Bowtie is run both in its Maq-like default mode and in its SOAP-like '-v 2' mode. Bowtie is also given the '-z' option to ensure that only the forward or mirror index is resident in memory at one time. Maq v0.7.1 was used instead of Maq v0.6.6 for the 76-bp set because v0.6.6 cannot align reads longer than 63 bp. SOAP was not run on the 76-bp set because it does not support reads longer than 60 bp. The results show that Maq's algorithm scales better overall to longer read lengths than Bowtie or SOAP. However, Bowtie in SOAP-like '-v 2' mode also scales very well. Bowtie in its default Maq-like mode scales well from 36-bp to 50-bp reads but is substantially slower for 76-bp reads, although it is still more than an order of magnitude faster than Maq. Parallel performance Alignment can be parallelized by distributing reads across concurrent search threads. Bowtie allows the user to specify a desired number of threads (option -p); Bowtie then launches the specified number of threads using the pthreads library. Bowtie threads synchronize with each other when fetching reads, outputting results, switching between indices, and performing various forms of global bookkeeping, such as marking a read as 'done'. Otherwise, threads are free to operate in parallel, substantially speeding up alignment on computers with multiple processor cores. The memory image of the index is shared by all threads, and so the footprint does not increase substantially when multiple threads are used. Table 4 shows performance results for running Bowtie v0.9.6 on the four-core server with one, two, and four threads. Table 4 Bowtie parallel alignment performance CPU time Wall clock time Reads mapped per hour (millions) Peak virtual memory footprint (megabytes) Speedup Bowtie, one thread 18 m 19 s 18 m 46 s 28.3 1,353 - Bowtie, two threads 20 m 34 s 10 m 35 s 50.1 1,363 1.77× Bowtie, four threads 23 m 9 s 6 m 1 s 88.1 1,384 3.12× Performance results for running Bowtie v0.9.6 on the four-core server with one, two, and four threads. Other experimental parameters are identical to those of the experiments in Table 1. CPU, central processing unit. Index building Bowtie uses a flexible indexing algorithm [29] that can be configured to trade off between memory usage and running time. Table 5 illustrates this trade-off when indexing the entire human reference genome (NCBI build 36.3, contigs). Runs were performed on the server platform. The indexer was run four times with different upper limits on memory usage. Table 5 Bowtie index building performance Physical memory target (GB) Actual peak memory footprint (GB) Wall clock time 16 14.4 4 h 36 m 8 5.84 5 h 5 m 4 3.39 7 h 40 m 2 1.39 21 h 30 m Performance results and memory footprints of running the Bowtie v0.9.6 indexer on the whole human genome (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 36.3, contigs). Runs were performed on the server platform. The indexer was run four times with different upper limits on memory usage. See Additional data file 1 (Supplementary Discussion 3 and Supplementary Table 1) for details. The reported times compare favorably with alignment times of competing tools that perform indexing during alignment. Less than 5 hours is required for Bowtie to both build and query a whole-human index with 8.84 million reads from the 1,000 Genome project (NCBI Short Read Archive:SRR001115) on a server, more than sixfold faster than the equivalent Maq run. The bottom-most row illustrates that the Bowtie indexer, with appropriate arguments, is memory-efficient enough to run on a typical workstation with 2 GB of RAM. Additional data file 1 (Supplementary discussions 3 and 4) explains the algorithm and the contents of the resulting index. Software Bowtie is written in C++ and uses the SeqAn library [30]. The converter to the Maq mapping format uses code from Maq. Discussion Bowtie exhibits a large performance advantage over both Maq and SOAP when mapping reads to the human genome. Bowtie's sensitivity in terms of reads aligned is comparable to that of SOAP and slightly less than Maq's, although the user may use command-line options to trade slower running time for greater sensitivity. Unlike SOAP, Bowtie's 1.3 GB memory footprint allows it to run on a typical PC with 2 GB of RAM. Bowtie aligns Illumina reads to the human genome at a rate of over 25 million reads per hour. Multiple processor cores can run parallel Bowtie threads to achieve even greater alignment speed; experiments show a speed up of 3.12 for four threads on a typical Opteron server. Unlike many other short-read aligners, Bowtie creates a permanent index of the reference that may be re-used across alignment runs. Building the index is fast - Bowtie outperforms competing tools when aligning lanes of Illumina reads even with index construction time included. At 2.2 GB for the human genome, the on-disk size of a Bowtie index is small enough to distribute over the internet. The Bowtie website hosts pre-built indices for the human genome and several other model organisms including chimp, dog, rat, mouse, and chicken. Bowtie's speed and small memory footprint are due chiefly to its use of the Burrows-Wheeler index in combination with the novel, quality-aware, backtracking algorithm introduced here. Double indexing is used to avoid the performance penalty of excessive backtracking. Bowtie supports standard FASTQ and FASTA input formats, and comes with a conversion program that allows Bowtie output to be used with Maq's consensus generator and single nucleotide polymorphism caller. Bowtie does not yet support paired-end alignment or alignments with insertions or deletions, although both improvements are planned for the future. Paired-end alignment is not difficult to implement in Bowtie's framework, and we expect that Bowtie's performance advantage will be comparable to, though perhaps somewhat less than, that of unpaired alignment mode. Support for insertions and deletions is also a conceptually straightforward addition. Bowtie is free, open source software available from the Bowtie website [25]. Abbreviations bp: base pair; BWT: Burrows-Wheeler transform; CPU: central processing unit; FM: full-text minute-space; GB: gigabytes; LF: last first; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Authors' contributions BL developed the algorithms, collected results, and wrote most of the software. CT wrote some of the software. CT and MP contributed to discussions on algorithms. BL, CT, MP, and SLS wrote the manuscript. Additional data files The following additional data are included with the online version of this article: a document containing supplementary discussions, tables, and figures pertaining to algorithms for navigating the Burrows-Wheeler transform, the full four-phase version of the alignment algorithm that incorporates the reverse-complement, index construction, and components of the index (Additional data file 1). Supplementary Material Additional data file 1 Presented are supplementary discussions, tables, and figures pertaining to algorithms for navigating the Burrows-Wheeler transform, the full four-phase version of the alignment algorithm that incorporates the reverse-complement, index construction, and components of the index. Click here for file
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        Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq (MACS)

        Background The determination of the 'cistrome', the genome-wide set of in vivo cis-elements bound by trans-factors [1], is necessary to determine the genes that are directly regulated by those trans-factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) [2] coupled with genome tiling microarrays (ChIP-chip) [3,4] and sequencing (ChIP-Seq) [5-8] have become popular techniques to identify cistromes. Although early ChIP-Seq efforts were limited by sequencing throughput and cost [2,9], tremendous progress has been achieved in the past year in the development of next generation massively parallel sequencing. Tens of millions of short tags (25-50 bases) can now be simultaneously sequenced at less than 1% the cost of traditional Sanger sequencing methods. Technologies such as Illumina's Solexa or Applied Biosystems' SOLiD™ have made ChIP-Seq a practical and potentially superior alternative to ChIP-chip [5,8]. While providing several advantages over ChIP-chip, such as less starting material, lower cost, and higher peak resolution, ChIP-Seq also poses challenges (or opportunities) in the analysis of data. First, ChIP-Seq tags represent only the ends of the ChIP fragments, instead of precise protein-DNA binding sites. Although tag strand information and the approximate distance to the precise binding site could help improve peak resolution, a good tag to site distance estimate is often unknown to the user. Second, ChIP-Seq data exhibit regional biases along the genome due to sequencing and mapping biases, chromatin structure and genome copy number variations [10]. These biases could be modeled if matching control samples are sequenced deeply enough. However, among the four recently published ChIP-Seq studies [5-8], one did not have a control sample [5] and only one of the three with control samples systematically used them to guide peak finding [8]. That method requires peaks to contain significantly enriched tags in the ChIP sample relative to the control, although a small ChIP peak region often contains too few control tags to robustly estimate the background biases. Here, we present Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq data, MACS, which addresses these issues and gives robust and high resolution ChIP-Seq peak predictions. We conducted ChIP-Seq of FoxA1 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 3α) in MCF7 cells for comparison with FoxA1 ChIP-chip [1] and identification of features unique to each platform. When applied to three human ChIP-Seq datasets to identify binding sites of FoxA1 in MCF7 cells, NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor) in Jurkat T cells [8], and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) in CD4+ T cells [5] (summarized in Table S1 in Additional data file 1), MACS gives results superior to those produced by other published ChIP-Seq peak finding algorithms [8,11,12]. Results Modeling the shift size of ChIP-Seq tags ChIP-Seq tags represent the ends of fragments in a ChIP-DNA library and are often shifted towards the 3' direction to better represent the precise protein-DNA interaction site. The size of the shift is, however, often unknown to the experimenter. Since ChIP-DNA fragments are equally likely to be sequenced from both ends, the tag density around a true binding site should show a bimodal enrichment pattern, with Watson strand tags enriched upstream of binding and Crick strand tags enriched downstream. MACS takes advantage of this bimodal pattern to empirically model the shifting size to better locate the precise binding sites. Given a sonication size (bandwidth) and a high-confidence fold-enrichment (mfold), MACS slides 2bandwidth windows across the genome to find regions with tags more than mfold enriched relative to a random tag genome distribution. MACS randomly samples 1,000 of these high-quality peaks, separates their Watson and Crick tags, and aligns them by the midpoint between their Watson and Crick tag centers (Figure 1a) if the Watson tag center is to the left of the Crick tag center. The distance between the modes of the Watson and Crick peaks in the alignment is defined as 'd', and MACS shifts all the tags by d/2 toward the 3' ends to the most likely protein-DNA interaction sites. Figure 1 MACS model for FoxA1 ChIP-Seq. (a,b) The 5' ends of strand-separated tags from a random sample of 1,000 model peaks, aligned by the center of their Watson and Crick peaks (a) and by the FKHR motif (b). (c) The tag count in ChIP versus control in 10 kb windows across the genome. Each dot represents a 10 kb window; red dots are windows containing ChIP peaks and black dots are windows containing control peaks used for FDR calculation. (d) Tag density profile in control samples around FoxA1 ChIP-Seq peaks. (e,f) MACS improves the motif occurrence in the identified peak centers (e) and the spatial resolution (f) for FoxA1 ChIP-Seq through tag shifting and λlocal. Peaks are ranked by p-value. The motif occurrence is calculated as the percentage of peaks with the FKHR motif within 50 bp of the peak summit. The spatial resolution is calculated as the average distance from the summit to the nearest FKHR motif. Peaks with no FKHR motif within 150 bp of the peak summit are removed from the spatial resolution calculation. When applied to FoxA1 ChIP-Seq, which was sequenced with 3.9 million uniquely mapped tags, MACS estimates the d to be only 126 bp (Figure 1a; suggesting a tag shift size of 63 bp), despite a sonication size (bandwidth) of around 500 bp and Solexa size-selection of around 200 bp. Since the FKHR motif sequence dictates the precise FoxA1 binding location, the true distribution of d could be estimated by aligning the tags by the FKHR motif (122 bp; Figure 1b), which gives a similar result to the MACS model. When applied to NRSF and CTCF ChIP-Seq, MACS also estimates a reasonable d solely from the tag distribution: for NRSF ChIP-Seq the MACS model estimated d as 96 bp compared to the motif estimate of 70 bp; applied to CTCF ChIP-Seq data the MACS model estimated a d of 76 bp compared to the motif estimate of 62 bp. Peak detection For experiments with a control, MACS linearly scales the total control tag count to be the same as the total ChIP tag count. Sometimes the same tag can be sequenced repeatedly, more times than expected from a random genome-wide tag distribution. Such tags might arise from biases during ChIP-DNA amplification and sequencing library preparation, and are likely to add noise to the final peak calls. Therefore, MACS removes duplicate tags in excess of what is warranted by the sequencing depth (binomial distribution p-value 2). Among the remaining 34.6% ChIP-Seq unique peaks, 1,045 (13.3%) were not tiled or only partially tiled on the arrays due to the array design. Therefore, only 21.4% of ChIP-Seq peaks are indeed specific to the sequencing platform. Furthermore, ChIP-chip targets with higher fold-enrichments are more likely to be reproducibly detected by ChIP-Seq with a higher tag count (Figure 3b). Meanwhile, although the signals of array probes at the ChIP-Seq specific peak regions are below the peak-calling cutoff, they show moderate signal enrichments that are significantly higher than the genomic background (Wilcoxon p-value 2) and ChIP-Seq (MACS; FDR <1%). Shown are the numbers of regions detected by both platforms (that is, having at least 1 bp in common) or unique to each platform. (b) The distributions of ChIP-Seq tag number and ChIP-chip MATscore [13] for FoxA1 binding sites identified by both platforms. (c) MATscore distributions of FoxA1 ChIP-chip at ChIP-Seq/chip overlapping peaks, ChIP-Seq unique peaks, and genome background. For each peak, the mean MATscore for all probes within the 300 bp region centered at the ChIP-Seq peak summit is used. Genome background is based on MATscores of all array probes in the FoxA1 ChIP-chip data. (d) Width distributions of FoxA1 ChIP-Seq/chip overlapping peaks and ChIP-Seq unique peaks at different fold-enrichments (less than 25, 25 to 50, and larger than 50). (e) Spatial resolution for FoxA1 ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq peaks. The Wilcoxon test was used to calculate the p-values for (d) and (e). (f) Motif occurrence within the central 200 bp regions for FoxA1 ChIP-Seq/chip overlapping peaks and platform unique peaks. Error bars showing standard deviation were calculated from random sampling of 500 peaks ten times for each category. Background motif occurrences are based on 100,000 randomly selected 200 bp regions in the human genome, excluding regions in genome assembly gaps (containing 'N'). Comparing the difference between ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq peaks, we find that the average peak width from ChIP-chip is twice as large as that from ChIP-Seq. The average distance from peak summit to motif is significantly smaller in ChIP-Seq than ChIP-chip (Figure 3e), demonstrating the superior resolution of ChIP-Seq. Under the same 1% FDR cutoff, the FKHR motif occurrence within the central 200 bp from ChIP-chip or ChIP-Seq specific peaks is comparable with that from the overlapping peaks (Figure 3f). This suggests that most of the platform-specific peaks are genuine binding sites. A comparison between NRSF ChIP-Seq and ChIP-chip (Figure S3 in Additional data file 1) yields similar results, although the overlapping peaks for NRSF are of much better quality than the platform-specific peaks. Discussion ChIP-Seq users are often curious as to whether they have sequenced deep enough to saturate all the binding sites. In principle, sequencing saturation should be dependent on the fold-enrichment, since higher-fold peaks are saturated earlier than lower-fold ones. In addition, due to different cost and throughput considerations, different users might be interested in recovering sites at different fold-enrichment cutoffs. Therefore, MACS produces a saturation table to report, at different fold-enrichments, the proportion of sites that could still be detected when using 90% to 20% of the tags. Such tables produced for FoxA1 (3.9 million tags) and NRSF (2.2 million tags) ChIP-Seq data sets (Figure S4 in Additional data file 1; CTCF does not have a control to robustly estimate fold-enrichment) show that while peaks with over 60-fold enrichment have been saturated, deeper sequencing could still recover more sites less than 40-fold enriched relative to the chromatin input DNA. As sequencing technologies improve their throughput, researchers are gradually increasing their sequencing depth, so this question could be revisited in the future. For now, we leave it up to individual users to make an informed decision on whether to sequence more based on the saturation at different fold-enrichment levels. The d modeled by MACS suggests that some short read sequencers such as Solexa may preferentially sequence shorter fragments in a ChIP-DNA pool. This may contribute to the superior resolution observed in ChIP-Seq data, especially for activating transcription and epigenetic factors in open chromatin. However, for repressive factors targeting relatively compact chromatin, the target regions might be harder to sonicate into the soluble extract. Furthermore, in the resulting ChIP-DNA, the true targets may tend to be longer than the background DNA in open chromatin, making them unfavorable for size-selection and sequencing. This implies that epigenetic markers of closed chromatin may be harder to ChIP, and even harder to ChIP-Seq. To assess this potential bias, examining the histone mark ChIP-Seq results from Mikkelsen et al. [7], we find that while the ChIP-Seq efficiency of the active mark H3K4me3 remains high as pluripotent cells differentiate, that of repressive marks H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 becomes lower with differentiation (Table S2 in Additional data file 1), even though it is likely that there are more targets for these repressive marks as cells differentiate. We caution ChIP-Seq users to adopt measures to compensate for this bias when ChIPing repressive marks, such as more vigorous sonication, size-selecting slightly bigger fragments for library preparation, or sonicating the ChIP-DNA further between decrosslinking and library preparation. MACS calculates the FDR based on the number of peaks from control over ChIP that are called at the same p-value cutoff. This FDR estimate is more robust than calculating the FDR from randomizing tags along the genome. However, we notice that when tag counts from ChIP and controls are not balanced, the sample with more tags often gives more peaks even though MACS normalizes the total tag counts between the two samples (Figure S5 in Additional data file 1). While we await more available ChIP-Seq data with deeper coverage to understand and overcome this bias, we suggest to ChIP-Seq users that if they sequence more ChIP tags than controls, the FDR estimate of their ChIP peaks might be overly optimistic. Conclusion As developments in sequencing technology popularize ChIP-Seq, we propose a novel algorithm, MACS, for its data analysis. MACS offers four important utilities for predicting protein-DNA interaction sites from ChIP-Seq. First, MACS improves the spatial resolution of the predicted sites by empirically modeling the distance d and shifting tags by d/2. Second, MACS uses a dynamic λlocal parameter to capture local biases in the genome and improves the robustness and specificity of the prediction. It is worth noting that in addition to ChIP-Seq, λlocal can potentially be applied to other high throughput sequencing applications, such as copy number variation and digital gene expression, to capture regional biases and estimate robust fold-enrichment. Third, MACS can be applied to ChIP-Seq experiments without controls, and to those with controls with improved performance. Last but not least, MACS is easy to use and provides detailed information for each peak, such as genome coordinates, p-value, FDR, fold_enrichment, and summit (peak center). Materials and methods Dataset ChIP-Seq data for three factors, NRSF, CTCF, and FoxA1, were used in this study. ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq (2.2 million ChIP and 2.8 million control uniquely mapped reads, simplified as 'tags') data for NRSF in Jurkat T cells were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GSM210637) and Johnson et al. [8], respectively. ChIP-Seq (2.9 million ChIP tags) data for CTCF in CD4+ T cells were derived from Barski et al. [5]. ChIP-chip data for FoxA1 and controls in MCF7 cells were previously published [1], and their corresponding ChIP-Seq data were generated specifically for this study. Around 3 ng FoxA1 ChIP DNA and 3 ng control DNA were used for library preparation, each consisting of an equimolar mixture of DNA from three independent experiments. Libraries were prepared as described in [8] using a PCR preamplification step and size selection for DNA fragments between 150 and 400 bp. FoxA1 ChIP and control DNA were each sequenced with two lanes by the Illumina/Solexa 1G Genome Analyzer, and yielded 3.9 million and 5.2 million uniquely mapped tags, respectively. Software implementation MACS is implemented in Python and freely available with an open source Artistic License at [16]. It runs from the command line and takes the following parameters: -t for treatment file (ChIP tags, this is the ONLY required parameter for MACS) and -c for control file containing mapped tags; --format for input file format in BED or ELAND (output) format (default BED); --name for name of the run (for example, FoxA1, default NA); --gsize for mappable genome size to calculate λBG from tag count (default 2.7G bp, approximately the mappable human genome size); --tsize for tag size (default 25); --bw for bandwidth, which is half of the estimated sonication size (default 300); --pvalue for p-value cutoff to call peaks (default 1e-5); --mfold for high-confidence fold-enrichment to find model peaks for MACS modeling (default 32); --diag for generating the table to evaluate sequence saturation (default off). In addition, the user has the option to shift tags by an arbitrary number (--shiftsize) without the MACS model (--nomodel), to use a global lambda (--nolambda) to call peaks, and to show debugging and warning messages (--verbose). If a user has replicate files for ChIP or control, it is recommended to concatenate all replicates into one input file. The output includes one BED file containing the peak chromosome coordinates, and one xls file containing the genome coordinates, summit, p-value, fold_enrichment and FDR (if control is available) of each peak. For FoxA1 ChIP-Seq in MCF7 cells with 3.9 million and 5.2 million ChIP and control tags, respectively, it takes MACS 15 seconds to model the ChIP-DNA size distribution and less than 3 minutes to detect peaks on a 2 GHz CPU Linux computer with 2 GB of RAM. Figure S6 in Additional data file 1 illustrates the whole process with a flow chart. Abbreviations ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation; CTCF, CCCTC-binding factor; FDR, false discovery rate; FoxA1, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3α; MACS, Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq data; NRSF, neuron-restrictive silencer factor. Authors' contributions XSL, WL and YZ conceived the project and wrote the paper. YZ, TL and CAM designed the algorithm, performed the research and implemented the software. JE, DSJ, BEB, CN, RMM and MB performed FoxA1 ChIP-Seq experiments and contributed to ideas. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Additional data files The following additional data are available. Additional data file 1 contains supporting Figures S1-S6, and supporting Tables S1 and S2. Supplementary Material Additional data file 1 Figures S1-S6, and Tables S1 and S2. Click here for file
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          Simple combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors prime cis-regulatory elements required for macrophage and B cell identities.

          Genome-scale studies have revealed extensive, cell type-specific colocalization of transcription factors, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate in macrophages and B cells that collaborative interactions of the common factor PU.1 with small sets of macrophage- or B cell lineage-determining transcription factors establish cell-specific binding sites that are associated with the majority of promoter-distal H3K4me1-marked genomic regions. PU.1 binding initiates nucleosome remodeling, followed by H3K4 monomethylation at large numbers of genomic regions associated with both broadly and specifically expressed genes. These locations serve as beacons for additional factors, exemplified by liver X receptors, which drive both cell-specific gene expression and signal-dependent responses. Together with analyses of transcription factor binding and H3K4me1 patterns in other cell types, these studies suggest that simple combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors can specify the genomic sites ultimately responsible for both cell identity and cell type-specific responses to diverse signaling inputs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110–799, Republic of Korea
            [2 ]Division of Cancer Biology, Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769, Republic of Korea
            [3 ]Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Republic of Korea
            [4 ]College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea
            [5 ]Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Republic of Korea
            Author notes
            [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +82 2 740 8250; Fax: +82 2 3668 7622; Email: hdyoun@ 123456snu.ac.kr
            Journal
            Nucleic Acids Res
            Nucleic Acids Res
            nar
            nar
            Nucleic Acids Research
            Oxford University Press
            0305-1048
            1362-4962
            19 May 2015
            26 March 2015
            26 March 2015
            : 43
            : 9
            : 4505-4516
            25813038
            4482061
            10.1093/nar/gkv176
            © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Pages: 12
            Product
            Categories
            Gene regulation, Chromatin and Epigenetics
            NAR Breakthrough Article
            Custom metadata
            19 May 2015

            Genetics

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