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      Prospective study on nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer: clinical results and biological observations in taxane-pretreated patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          There is a deep need to improve the care of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, since even today it remains an incurable disease. Taxanes are considered the most effective cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of MBC, both in monotherapy and in combined schedules, but the need for synthetic solvents contributes to the severe toxicities and may have a negative impact on the efficacy. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ( Nab-paclitaxel) is a colloidal suspension of paclitaxel and human serum albumin initially developed to avoid the toxicities associated with conventional taxanes.

          Patients and methods

          The aim of this prospective, single-center open-label, noncomparative study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel in MBC patients pretreated with taxanes. The patients were treated with nab-paclitaxel as a single agent, 260 mg/m 2 on day 1 of each 3-week cycle or 125 mg/m 2 weekly. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). Secondary objectives were duration of response, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and safety.

          Results

          A total of 42 patients (median age 48 years, median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0, triple-negative MBC 19%, all pretreated with a taxane-based therapy, mainly in advanced disease) were enrolled in the study. The ORR was 23.8%, including one complete response (2.4%) and nine partial responses (21.4%); the disease control rate was 50%. The median duration of response was 7.2 months. After a median follow-up of 9 months, the median PFS was 4.6 months. ORR and PFS were similar irrespective of the previous chemotherapy lines, metastatic sites, and biomolecular expression. Nab-paclitaxel was well tolerated, and the most frequent treatment-related toxicities were mild to moderate (grades 1–2).

          Conclusion

          This real-life study shows that nab-paclitaxel has a significant antitumor activity and a manageable safety profile in patients pretreated with taxanes and experiencing a treatment failure after at least one line of chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer.

          ABI-007, the first biologically interactive albumin-bound paclitaxel in a nanameter particle, free of solvents, was compared with polyethylated castor oil-based standard paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This phase III study was performed to confirm preclinical studies demonstrating superior efficacy and reduced toxicity of ABI-007 compared with standard paclitaxel. Patients were randomly assigned to 3-week cycles of either ABI-007 260 mg/m(2) intravenously without premedication (n = 229) or standard paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) intravenously with premedication (n = 225). ABI-007 demonstrated significantly higher response rates compared with standard paclitaxel (33% v 19%, respectively; P = .001) and significantly longer time to tumor progression (23.0 v 16.9 weeks, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.75; P = .006). The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia was significantly lower for ABI-007 compared with standard paclitaxel (9% v 22%, respectively; P < .001) despite a 49% higher paclitaxel dose. Febrile neutropenia was uncommon (< 2%), and the incidence did not differ between the two study arms. Grade 3 sensory neuropathy was more common in the ABI-007 arm than in the standard paclitaxel arm (10% v 2%, respectively; P < .001) but was easily managed and improved rapidly (median, 22 days). No hypersensitivity reactions occurred with ABI-007 despite the absence of premedication and shorter administration time. ABI-007 demonstrated greater efficacy and a favorable safety profile compared with standard paclitaxel in this patient population. The improved therapeutic index and elimination of corticosteroid premedication required for solvent-based taxanes make the novel albumin-bound paclitaxel ABI-007 an important advance in the treatment of MBC.
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            Locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

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              Significantly longer progression-free survival with nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer.

              In patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), nab-paclitaxel produced significantly higher antitumor activity compared with patients who received solvent-based paclitaxel. This phase II study examined the antitumor activity and safety of weekly and every 3 week (q3w) nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel as first-line treatment in patients with MBC. In this randomized, multicenter study, patients (N = 302) with previously untreated MBC received nab-paclitaxel 300 mg/m(2) q3w, 100 mg/m(2) weekly, or 150 mg/m(2) weekly or docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) q3w. nab-Paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) weekly demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) than docetaxel by both independent radiologist assessment (12.9 v 7.5 months, respectively; P = .0065) and investigator assessment (14.6 v 7.8 months, respectively; P = .012). On the basis of independent radiologist review, both 150 mg/m(2) (49%) and 100 mg/m(2) (45%) weekly of nab-paclitaxel demonstrated a higher overall response rate (ORR) than docetaxel (35%), but this did not reach statistical significance. This trend was supported by statistically significant investigator ORR for both weekly nab-paclitaxel doses versus docetaxel. nab-Paclitaxel q3w versus docetaxel was not different for PFS or ORR. On the basis of both the independent radiologist and investigator review, disease control rate was significantly higher for patients receiving either dose of weekly nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel. Grade 3 or 4 fatigue, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia were less frequent in all nab-paclitaxel arms. The frequency and grade of peripheral neuropathy were similar in all arms. This randomized study in first-line MBC demonstrated superior efficacy and safety of weekly nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel, with a statistically and clinically significant prolongation of PFS (> 5 months) in patients receiving nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) weekly compared with docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) q3w.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                20 November 2015
                : 9
                : 6177-6183
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Biostatistic Unit, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Service of Radiology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Operative Unit of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Pathology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy
                [5 ]Department of Pathology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy
                [6 ]Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alessandra Fabi, Department of Medical Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, Rome, Italy, Tel +39 06 5144 6919, Fax +39 06 5266 5637, Email alessandra.fabi@ 123456virgilio.it
                Article
                dddt-9-6177
                10.2147/DDDT.S89575
                4662373
                © 2015 Fabi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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