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      Characterization of Porous TiO 2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications

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          Abstract

          In this study, a porous oxide layer was formed on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by combining Ti magnetron sputtering and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim to produce a polymer-free drug carrier for drug eluting stent (DES) applications. The oxidation was performed galvanostatically in Na 3PO 4 electrolyte. The surface porosity, average pore size and roughness varied with PEO treatment duration, and under optimum conditions, the surface showed a porosity of 7.43%, an average pore size of 0.44 µm and a roughness (Ra) of 0.34 µm. The EDS analyses revealed that the porous layer consisted of Ti, O and P. The cross-sectional morphology evidenced a double-layer structure, with a porous titania surface and an un-oxidized dense Ti film towards the interface with 316L SS. After the PEO treatment, wettability and surface free energy increased significantly. The results of the present study confirm the feasibility of forming a porous TiO 2 layer on stainless steel by combining sputtering technology and PEO. Further, the resultant porous oxide layer has the potential to be used as a drug carrier for DES, thus avoiding the complications associated with the polymer based carriers.

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          Most cited references 37

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          A randomized comparison of a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard stent for coronary revascularization.

          The need for repeated treatment of restenosis of a treated vessel remains the main limitation of percutaneous coronary revascularization. Because sirolimus (rapamycin) inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes and smooth-muscle cells, we compared a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard uncoated stent in patients with angina pectoris. We performed a randomized, double-blind trial to compare the two types of stents for revascularization of single, primary lesions in native coronary arteries. The trial included 238 patients at 19 medical centers. The primary end point was in-stent late luminal loss (the difference between the minimal luminal diameter immediately after the procedure and the diameter at six months). Secondary end points included the percentage of in-stent stenosis of the luminal diameter and the rate of restenosis (luminal narrowing of 50 percent or more). We also analyzed a composite clinical end point consisting of death, myocardial infarction, and percutaneous or surgical revascularization at 1, 6, and 12 months. At six months, the degree of neointimal proliferation, manifested as the mean (+/-SD) late luminal loss, was significantly lower in the sirolimus-stent group (-0.01+/-0.33 mm) than in the standard-stent group (0.80+/-0.53 mm, P<0.001). None of the patients in the sirolimus-stent group, as compared with 26.6 percent of those in the standard-stent group, had restenosis of 50 percent or more of the luminal diameter (P<0.001). There were no episodes of stent thrombosis. During a follow-up period of up to one year, the overall rate of major cardiac events was 5.8 percent in the sirolimus-stent group and 28.8 percent in the standard-stent group (P<0.001). The difference was due entirely to a higher rate of revascularization of the target vessel in the standard-stent group. As compared with a standard coronary stent, a sirolimus-eluting stent shows considerable promise for the prevention of neointimal proliferation, restenosis, and associated clinical events.
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            A polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery disease.

            Restenosis after coronary stenting necessitates repeated percutaneous or surgical revascularization procedures. The delivery of paclitaxel to the site of vascular injury may reduce the incidence of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. At 73 U.S. centers, we enrolled 1314 patients who were receiving a stent in a single, previously untreated coronary-artery stenosis (vessel diameter, 2.5 to 3.75 mm; lesion length, 10 to 28 mm) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 652 patients were randomly assigned to receive a bare-metal stent, and 662 to receive an identical-appearing, slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent. Angiographic follow-up was prespecified at nine months in 732 patients. In terms of base-line characteristics, the two groups were well matched. Diabetes mellitus was present in 24.2 percent of patients; the mean reference-vessel diameter was 2.75 mm, and the mean lesion length was 13.4 mm. A mean of 1.08 stents (length, 21.8 mm) were implanted per patient. The rate of ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization at nine months was reduced from 12.0 percent with the implantation of a bare-metal stent to 4.7 percent with the implantation of a paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.59; P<0.001). Target-lesion revascularization was required in 3.0 percent of the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent, as compared with 11.3 percent of the group that received a bare-metal stent (relative risk, 0.27; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.43; P<0.001). The rate of angiographic restenosis was reduced from 26.6 percent to 7.9 percent with the paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.46; P<0.001). The nine-month composite rates of death from cardiac causes or myocardial infarction (4.7 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively) and stent thrombosis (0.6 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively) were similar in the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent and the group that received a bare-metal stent. As compared with bare-metal stents, the slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent is safe and markedly reduces the rates of clinical and angiographic restenosis at nine months. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Globular proteins at solid/liquid interfaces

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Funct Biomater
                J Funct Biomater
                jfb
                Journal of Functional Biomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4983
                11 May 2011
                June 2012
                : 3
                : 2
                : 349-360
                Affiliations
                Department of BioMechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands; Email: z.huan@ 123456tudelft.nl (Z.H.); i.apachitei@ 123456tudelft.nl (I.A.); j.duszczyk@ 123456tudelft.nl (J.D.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Email: e.l.fratila-apachitei@ 123456tudelft.nl ; Tel.: +31-15-2789083; Fax: +31-15-2786730.
                Article
                jfb-03-00349
                10.3390/jfb3020349
                4047934
                © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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